This study examined the structure of the transtheoretical model (TM) in exercise behavior change among adults age 50–65 years (n = 583). The purpose was to examine the relationship between stage of change and the constructs of processes of change, self-efficacy, and decisional balance. The results showed that 5 of the 10 processes of change, self-efficacy, and both pros and cons make significant and unique contributions to discrimination between the stages. Specifically, the use of the processes of change was shown to fluctuate across the stages, self-efficacy was shown to increase from precontemplation to maintenance, and the balance between pros and cons was shown to change from precontemplation to maintenance. The similarity of these results to previous literature suggests that the process of behavior change hypothesized within the TM holds across different age groups and cultures. Several implications for intervention design and suggestions for further research are discussed.
An Examination of the Transtheoretical Model and Exercise Behavior in Older Adults
Trish Gorely and Sandy Gordon
Application of the Transtheoretical Model to Physical Activity in Deaf Individuals
Stefania Korologou, Vassilis Barkoukis, Lambros Lazuras, and Haralambos Tsorbatzoudis
The current study used the transtheoretical model (TTM) as a guiding theoretical framework to assess differences in processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy among deaf individuals with different levels of physical activity. Overall, 146 participants (M age = 26.4 yr, SD = 4.28) completed anonymous questionnaires assessing the dimensions of the TTM, stages of change, processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy. Analysis of variance showed that both experiential and behavioral processes of change were higher in the preparation, action, and maintenance stages than in the other stages. Accordingly, the benefits of physical activity participation were stronger in the preparation stage, whereas the costs were more evident in the precontemplation stage. Finally, self-efficacy at the preparation stage was higher than in the other stages. The findings revealed how different stages of physical activity participation can be explained through the TTM, and the implications for physical activity intervention are discussed.
Using the Transtheoretical Model to Examine the Effects of Exergaming on Physical Activity Among Children
Zachary C. Pope, Beth A. Lewis, and Zan Gao
The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) has been widely used to understand individuals’ physical activity (PA) correlates and behavior. However, the theory’s application among children in exergaming remains unknown.
Investigate the effects of an exergaming program on children’s TTM-based PA correlates and PA levels.
At pretest and posttest, 212 upper elementary children (mean age = 11.17 years) from the greater Mountain West Region were administered measures regarding stages of change (SOC) for PA behavior, decisional balance for PA behaviors, PA self-efficacy, and self-reported PA levels. Following the pretest, a weekly 30-minute, 18-week Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) program was implemented. Children were classified into 3 SOC groups: progressive children (ie, progressed to a higher SOC stage); stable children (ie, remained at the same SOC stage); and regressive children (ie, regressed to a lower SOC stage).
Progressive children had greater increased PA levels than regressive children (P < .01) from pretest to posttest. Similarly, progressive children had greater increased self-efficacy (P < .05) and decision balance (P < .05) than regressive children.
The findings indicate that progressive children had more improvements on self-efficacy, decisional balance, and PA levels than regressive children over time. Implications of findings are discussed.
Psychological Skills Training in NCAA Division I Athletics: Are Athletes Ready for Change?
William V. Massey, Stacy L. Gnacinski, and Barbara B. Meyer
Research has demonstrated the efficacy of psychological skills training (PST), yet many athletes do not appear ready to do whatever it takes to improve the mental aspects of performance. Although the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM), generally, and readiness to change, specifically, have received considerable attention in a range of allied health fields, few studies have been conducted to examine this construct in applied sport psychology. The purpose of the current study was to examine National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes’ readiness for PST as it relates to their stage of change, decisional balance, self-efficacy, and use of processes of change. The data trends observed in the current study were consistent with the theoretical underpinnings of the TTM as well as previous research on NCAA Division I athletes. The results of the current study highlight the need to consider readiness to change when designing and implementing PST interventions.
Evidence for the Construct Validity of Self-Motivation as a Correlate of Exercise Adherence in French Older Adults
Nathalie André and Rod K. Dishman
Exercise adherence involves a number of sociocognitive factors that influence the adoption and maintenance of regular physical activity. Among traitlike factors, self-motivation is believed to be a unique predictor of persistence during behavior change. The aim of this study was to validate the factor structure of a French version of the Self-Motivation Inventory (SMI) and to provide initial convergent and discriminant evidence for its construct validity as a correlate of exercise adherence.
Four hundred seventy-one elderly were recruited and administered the SMI-10. Structural equation modeling tested the relation of SMI-10 scores with exercise adherence in a correlated network that included decisional balance and perceived quality of life.
Acceptable evidence was found to support the factor validity and measurement equivalence of the French version of the SMI-10. Moreover, self-motivation was related to exercise adherence independently of decisional balance and perceived quality of life, providing initial evidence for construct validity.
Examining Stage of Change Differences in NCAA Student-Athletes’ Readiness for Psychological Skills Training
Stacy L. Gnacinski, William V. Massey, Courtney W. Hess, Mellanie M. Nai, Monna Arvinen-Barrow, and Barbara B. Meyer
To enhance the specificity of psychological skills training (PST) interventions, the purpose of the current study was to examine stage of change and gender differences in the combination of transtheoretical model (TTM) constructs (i.e., decisional balance pros and cons, self-efficacy, cognitive and behavioral processes of change) among collegiate student-athletes. Participants (N = 602) completed all TTM measures, and a factorial multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of stage of change and gender on the combination of TTM constructs. No significant interaction effect was identified, yet significant main effects of stage of change and gender were identified. Post hoc tests revealed unique linear combinations of decisional balance, self-efficacy, and processes of change for each stage of change contrast. Taken together, study findings may be used to enhance the specificity of behavior change interventions when delivering PST programs to both male and female collegiate student-athletes.
Exercise Behavior among New Zealand Adolescents: A Test of the Transtheoretical Model
Ralph Maddison and Harry Prapavessis
The purpose of this study was to examine whether variables in the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) acted more as predictors than as consequences of exercise behavior (stage of change). Students from 13 New Zealand high schools (N = 1,434) completed questionnaires corresponding to variables in the TTM (i.e., stage of exercise change, processes of change, self-efficacy, and decisional balance) at two time periods separated by 6 months. Reciprocal relationships were found between exercise behavior and the TTM variables. The TTM might be a useful framework for understanding longitudinal exercise behavior in the adolescent population.
Exercise Behavior in Older Adults: A Test of the Transtheoretical Model
Corjena Cheung, Jean Wyman, Cynthia Gross, Jennifer Peters, Mary Findorff, and Holly Stock
The transtheoretical model (TTM) was developed as a guide for understanding behavior change. Little attention has been given, however, to the appropriateness of the TTM for explaining the adoption of exercise behavior in older adults. The purposes of this study were to determine the reliability of the TTM instruments and validate TTM predictions in 86 community-dwelling older adults (mean age 75.1 ± 7.0 years, 87% women) who were participants in a 16-week walking program. TTM construct scales—self-efficacy, decisional balance (pros and cons), and processes of change (behavioral and cognitive)—were generally reliable (all α > .78). Behavioral processes of change increased from baseline to follow-up, but pros, cons, and cognitive processes did not change among participants who became regular exercisers. Stage of change did not predict exercise adoption, but baseline self-efficacy predicted walking behavior. These results lend partial support to the TTM in predicting exercise behavior.
Application of the Transtheoretical Model to Psychological Skills Training
Thad R. Leffingwell, Steven P. Rider, and Jean M. Williams
In an effort to apply the transtheoretical model of change to the area of psychological skills training, questionnaires measuring stage of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy were developed and cross-validated on two samples of NCAA Division I intercollegiate student-athletes. The measures showed good internal reliability and construct validity and exhibited hypothesized functional relationships with each other. In addition, the stage of change measure predicted sport psychology consultations initialed by athletes during the year following questionnaire administration and may prove to be a useful tool in predicting subsequent initiation of individual sport psychology consultation. Several potentially useful lines of research are discussed and recommendations are made regarding the development of sport psychology interventions tailored according to athletes’ stage of change.
The Value of Balance-Assessment Measurements in Identifying and Monitoring Acute Postural Instability Among Concussed Athletes
Andrea Cripps and Scott C. Livingston
Sport-related concussions are a significant health issue due to the high incidence of concussions sustained each sports season. Current approaches to the evaluation of acutely concussed athletes include the use of balance assessments to identify and monitor underlying postural instability arising from concussion. Balance assessment has been recommended as a primary measurement tool for monitoring recovery and for making return-to-play decisions. Balance impairments have been shown to occur in the initial postconcussion period (ie, 1–10 d). Numerous clinical and laboratory measures have been used in the assessment of balance immediately after concussion, and clinicians are faced with deciding which measures to use.
Focused Clinical Question:
How do clinical or field-based balance-assessment tools compare to laboratory-based balance measures in identifying deficits in postural stability among acutely concussed athletes?