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Lea-Cathrin Dohme, David Piggott, Susan Backhouse, and Gareth Morgan

review is to provide such synthesis by fulfilling three objectives: to identify PSCs perceived as facilitative of talented youth athletes’ development, to group and label synonymous PSCs, and to categorize PSCs based on definitions established by Dohme et al. ( 2017 ). Method Development of Search

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John Lyle

process has been a continuing feature of my work since that time. The initial ‘contents list’ for the coaching theory module reflected a number of themes: role, definitions, philosophy (approach), responsibilities, and sport-specific behaviours. These were rehearsed in an early publication ( Lyle, 1981

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Zachary Merrill, Grace Bova, April Chambers, and Rakié Cham

predict parameters. These models often use different trunk segment boundaries 12 , 15 and may exclude regions of the hips based on trunk and thigh segment definitions. 16 These regions may be significant in obese adults. This is of particular concern in light of previous work demonstrating that age and

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Deborah Kendzierski, R. Michael Furr Jr., and Jennifer Schiavoni

Three studies investigated the correlates of physical activity self-definitions among undergraduate exercisers and athletes, and examined the perceived criteria for defining oneself as a weightlifter, basketball player, and exerciser. Perceptions about behavior, motivation-related variables, and social world variables showed consistent relationships with self-definition; correlations between self-definition and enjoyment varied according to activity. Although affective criteria were mentioned by a sizable number of those with and without physical activity self-definitions, participants cited far more behavioral than affective criteria. Other frequently mentioned criteria were also identified. Implications for self-inference are discussed and a preliminary model of physical activity self-definition is presented.

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Luca Pollastri, Gabriele Gallo, Milena Zucca, Luca Filipas, Antonio La Torre, Ugo Riba, Luigi Molino, and Elisabetta Geda

has a certain risk of producing excitatory or inhibitory influences in other areas than those targeted. 7 A variant called high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS), able to increase the focality of neuromodulation, has been recently proposed. 17 Instead of using 2 large

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Anne Vernez Moudon, Chanam Lee, Allen D. Cheadle, Cheza Garvin, Donna Johnson, Thomas L. Schmid, Robert D. Weathers, and Lin Lin

Background:

The concept of walkable neighborhoods is increasingly important in physical activity research and intervention. However, limited theoretical understanding and measurable definitions remain a challenge.

Methods:

This paper reviews theories defining neighborhoods and offers an empirical approach to identify measurable attributes and thresholds of walkable neighborhoods. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used for self-reported socio-demographic background, neighborhood walking behavior and perception, and objective measures of environments.

Results:

Environmental attributes positively associated with walking sufficiently to meet health recommendations included higher residential density and smaller street-blocks around home, and shorter distances to food and daily retail facilities from home. Threshold distances for eating/drinking establishments and grocery stores were 860 and 1445 feet.

Conclusions:

Results questioned theoretical constructs of neighborhoods centered on recreation and educational uses. They pointed to finer mixes of uses than those characterizing suburban neighborhoods, and small spatial units of analysis and intervention to capture and promote neighborhood walkability.

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Deborah Kendzierski and Mara S. Morganstein

Structural equation modeling was used to test an extended version of the Kendzierski, Furr, and Schiavoni (1998) Physical Activity Self-Definition Model. A revised model using data from 622 runners fit the data well. Cross-validation indices supported the revised model, and this model also provided a good fit to data from 397 cyclists. Partial invariance was found across activities. In both samples, perceived commitment and perceived ability had direct effects on self-definition, and perceived wanting, perceived trying, and enjoyment had indirect effects. The contribution of perceived ability to self-definition did not differ across activities. Implications concerning the original model, indirect effects, skill salience, and the role of context in self-definition are discussed.

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Jay C. Kimiecik and Amy T. Harris

It has been suggested that enjoyment is a key construct for understanding and explaining the motivation and experiences of sport and exercise participants (Scanlan & Simons, 1992; Wankel, 1993). In this paper, definitions of enjoyment used by sport and exercise psychology researchers are reviewed, and the conceptual and measurement implications for the study of sport and exercise experiences are discussed. In many studies investigating enjoyment, researchers have not adequately defined the construct. Also, there are possible limitations with proposed definitions of enjoyment (e.g., Scanlan & Simons, 1992; Wankel, 1993). One possible way of addressing these limitations is to conceptualize and define enjoyment as flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1993). To support this enjoyment-equals-flow contention, enjoyment/flow is compared with other related constructs: affect, attitude, pleasure, and intrinsic motivation. Implications of the suggested definition of enjoyment as flow for past and present enjoyment research in sport and exercise psychology are discussed.

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Stine Kloster, Ida Høgstedt Danquah, Andreas Holtermann, Mette Aadahl, and Janne Schurmann Tolstrup

Background:

Harmful health effects associated with sedentary behavior may be attenuated by breaking up long periods of sitting by standing or walking. However, studies assess interruptions in sitting time differently, making comparisons between studies difficult. It has not previously been described how the definition of minimum break duration affects sitting outcomes. Therefore, the aim was to address how definitions of break length affect total sitting time, number of sit-to-stand transitions, prolonged sitting periods and time accumulated in prolonged sitting periods among office workers.

Methods:

Data were collected from 317 office workers. Thigh position was assessed with an ActiGraph GT3X+ fixed on the right thigh. Data were exported with varying bout length of breaks. Afterward, sitting outcomes were calculated for the respective break lengths.

Results:

Absolute numbers of sit-to-stand transitions decreased, and number of prolonged sitting periods and total time accumulated in prolonged sitting periods increased, with increasing minimum break length. Total sitting time was not influenced by varying break length.

Conclusions:

The definition of minimum break length influenced the sitting outcomes with the exception of total sitting time. A standard definition of break length is needed for comparison and interpretation of studies in the evolving research field of sedentary behavior.

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Jill A. Bennett, Kerri Winters-Stone, Lillian M. Nail, and Jennifer Scherer

This review describes the definitions of sedentary used to screen community-dwelling adults in physical-activity-intervention trials published from 2000 to 2005. Results of 42 trials showed that definitions of sedentary varied from <20 to <150 min/week of physical activity, and few reported the type (work, household, or leisure) or intensity of activity that was used to screen participants. The range of “sedentary” samples makes it difficult to compare trial results or generalize findings. Published reports of exercise trials would be more useful to practitioners and researchers if they included an explicit description of the cut point used to define sedentary adults in the sample, in terms of maximum minutes or days per week of activity and the wording of the screening measure in terms of type and intensity of activity.