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Berkiye Kirmizigil, Jeffry Roy Chauchat, Omer Yalciner, Gozde Iyigun, Ender Angin and Gul Baltaci

Unaccustomed physical activity with high intensity and eccentric contractions may cause muscle damage that may present itself as delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). 1 , 2 Indeed, DOMS is accepted as a type I muscle strain. 3 Stiffness, soreness, and tenderness of muscles are symptoms associated

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Zeynep Hazar Kanik, Seyit Citaker, Canan Yilmaz Demirtas, Neslihan Celik Bukan, Bulent Celik and Gurkan Gunaydin

Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a well-known phenomenon that occurs after unaccustomed or strenuous exercise, particularly if the exercise involves a lot of eccentric contractions. 1 Many theories have been proposed to explain the mechanism of DOMS, such as lactic acid accumulation, muscle

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Thilo Hotfiel, Marion Kellermann, Bernd Swoboda, Dane Wildner, Tobias Golditz, Casper Grim, Martin Raithel, Michael Uder and Rafael Heiss

Muscle injuries are one of the most common sports injuries, presenting an incidence up to 10% to 55% of all injuries. 1 – 3 Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), an entity of ultrastructural muscle injury is classified as an overexertion-functional muscle disorder type Ib according to the “Munich

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Benjamin D. Armstrong, Mitchell L. Cordova, Christopher D. Ingersoll and Nancy F. Lawrence

Context:

Little research has been done evaluating the effects of muscle soreness on a lifting task.

Objective:

To examine the effects of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in the thigh musculature on kinematic and kinetic variables associated with the squat-lifting technique.

Design:

Pretest–posttest repeated measures, with treatment as the independent variable (DOMS and no DOMS of the thigh musculature).

Setting:

Research laboratory.

Participants:

Twenty healthy college students.

Intervention:

Subjects were videotaped lifting a 157-N crate before and after DOMS inducement.

Main Outcome Measures:

A 2-dimensional sagittal-plane video analysis was used to calculate 7 kinematic and kinetic variables.

Results:

DOMS had no effect on L5/S1 torque and shear or compression, hip torque and range of motion, or knee torque and range of motion during lifting.

Conclusions:

DOMS does not appear to alter kinematic and kinetic variables associated with the squat-lifting technique.

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Dawn T. Gulick and Iris F. Kimura

Muscle soreness, a familiar phenomenon to most athletes, has been differentiated into “acute” and “delayed onset.” The etiology of acute muscle soreness has been attributed to ischemia and the accumulation of metabolic by-products. However, the etiology of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is not so clear. Six theories have been proposed: lactic acid, muscle spasm, torn tissue, connective tissue, enzyme efflux, and tissue fluid theories. The treatment of DOMS has also been investigated. Studies in which anti-inflammatory medications have been administered have yielded varying results based on the dosage and the time of administration. Submaximal concentric exercise may alleviate soreness but does not restore muscle function. Neither cryotherapy nor stretching abates the symptoms of DOMS. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation has been shown to decrease soreness and increase range of motion, but the effect on the recovery of muscle function is unknown. Therefore, the treatment of DOMS remains an enigma.

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Jayd M. Grossman, Brent L. Arnold, David H. Perrin and David M. Kahler

This study evaluated the effectiveness of ibuprofen in treating delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) of the elbow flexors when taken prior to and following exercise. Twenty subjects received either 2,400 mg/day ibuprofen or a placebo four times per day. Subjects performed intense eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors to elicit DOMS. Concentric and eccentric peak torque production against an isokinetic resistance of 0.52 radls, range of motion at the elbow, and subjective soreness of the elbow flexors were measured. ANOVA indicated no significant group-by-time interaction for concentric peak torque, eccentric peak torque, or pain. A significant interaction was revealed for range of motion. There was a significant difference within each group's ROM but no interaction between groups. It was concluded that the use of 2,400 mg/day ibuprofen prior to and following intense eccentric exercise was no more effective than a placebo in treating DOMS of the elbow flexors.

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Yoshiharu Shimomura, Asami Inaguma, Satoko Watanabe, Yuko Yamamoto, Yuji Muramatsu, Gustavo Bajotto, Juichi Sato, Noriko Shimomura, Hisamine Kobayashi and Kazunori Mawatari

The authors examined the effect of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on squat-exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) using 12 young, healthy, untrained female participants. The experiment was conducted with a crossover double-blind design. In the morning on the exercise-session day, the participants ingested either BCAA (isoleucine:leucine:valine = 1:2.3:1.2) or dextrin at 100 mg/kg body weight before the squat exercise, which consisted of 7 sets of 20 squats/set with 3-min intervals between sets. DOMS showed a peak on Days 2 and 3 in both trials, but the level of soreness was significantly lower in the BCAA trial than in the placebo. Leg-muscle force during maximal voluntary isometric contractions was measured 2 d after exercise (Day 3), and the BCAA supplementation suppressed the muscle-force decrease (to ~80% of the value recorded under the control conditions) observed in the placebo trial. Plasma BCAA concentrations, which decreased after exercise in the placebo trial, were markedly elevated during the 2 hr postexercise in the BCAA trial. Serum myoglobin concentration was increased by exercise in the placebo but not in the BCAA trial. The concentration of plasma elastase as an index of neutrophil activation appeared to increase after the squat exercise in both trials, but the change in the elastase level was significant only in the placebo trial. These results suggest that muscle damage may be suppressed by BCAA supplementation.

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Craig R. Denegar, Andrew P. Yoho, Alex J. Borowicz and Nancy Bifulco

The efficacy of low-volt, microamperage stimulation (LVMAS) in the treatment of wounds and fractures has been demonstrated. Although these devices are also commonly used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, the efficacy of this practice has not been demonstrated. In this study, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) served as a model for musculoskeletal injury to compare daily treatment with LVMAS and static stretching to a placebo treatment and static stretching. DOMS was induced in the elbow flexor muscle group in 16 subjects, who were evaluated for pain, elbow flexor muscle group strength, and elbow extension range of motion. These data were collected before the eccentric exercise bout, before and after treatment 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours following the exercise bout, and again 196 hours after the exercise bout. No significant differences were found between LVMAS and placebo treatments on any of the variables across the duration of the study, but the LVMAS did provide a transient analgesic effect 24 and 48 hours following the eccentric exercise.

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Randy J. Schmitz, David E. Martin, David H. Perrin, Ali Iranmanesh and Alan D. Rogol

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of interferential current (IFC) on perceived pain and serum Cortisol levels in subjects with delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). DOMS was induced in 10 subjects through repeated eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors. Forty-eight hours later subjects were evaluated. Starting at t = 0:00, blood samples were withdrawn from a superficial vein every 5 min for 65 min. At t = 0:05, subjects received IFC of 10 bps or IFC of 100 bps. Perceived pain levels were evaluated prior to catheter insertion and at t = 0:35, 0:50, and 0:65. Two mixed-model analyses of variance revealed a significant decrease in perceived pain scores across time for both treatment groups but no significant difference in serum Cortisol for the two groups. It was concluded that IFC of high and low beat frequency is effective in controlling the pain of DOMS but does not elicit a generalized stress response as indexed by increasing serum Cortisol levels.

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Lauri M. Webber, William C. Byrnes, Thomas W. Rowland and Vicky L. Foster

Although delayed onset muscle soreness and increased serum creatine kinase activity (SCKA) following unaccustomed exercise is common in adults, little is known concerning these responses in children. The perception of muscle soreness and SCKA in children (n = 16) (M age = 10.4±.30 yr) was compared to a control group of adults (n = 15) (M age = 27.1±.87 yr) following a single bout of downhill running (30 min − 10% grade). Preexercise SCKA was not significantly different between the children (91.7±8.5 μmol•L−1•min−1) and the adults (77.1±5.9 μmol•L−1•min−1). The difference in SCKA (pre to 24 hours post) was significantly less (p<.01) for the children (68.6±16.2 μmol•L−1•min−1) than for the adults (188.7±36.8 μmol•L−1•min−1). When the groups were adjusted for weight differences, SCKA was not significantly different between the adults and the children. Regardless of age, males demonstrated a significantly greater increase in SCKA postexercise when compared to females. Soreness ratings (verbally anchored scale from 1 to 10) 24 hours following the downhill run were not significantly different between the children (3.8±.6) and the adults (4.5±.7). Following an eccentrically biased exercise task, children exhibited less of a SCKA response compared to adults that is related to body weight.