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Nicholas M. Watanabe, Grace Yan, Brian P. Soebbing, and Wantong Fu

.1080/00036848200000038 Borland , J. , & MacDonald , R. ( 2003 ). Demand for sport . Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 19 , 478 – 502 . doi:10.1093/oxrep/19.4.478 10.1093/oxrep/19.4.478 Buraimo , B. , Tena , J.D. , & de la Piedra , J.D. ( 2018 ). Attendance demand in a developing football market: The case of the

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Hua Gong, Nicholas M. Watanabe, Brian P. Soebbing, Matthew T. Brown, and Mark S. Nagel

; Taylor & Trogdon, 2002 ). In this sense, there exists a gap regarding the impact tanking has in terms of consumer interest in a sport. Recent scholarship focused on consumer demand for sport provides evidence that sport fans may not simply just be deterred by poor performance but actually may have an

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Fernando Lera-López and Manuel Rapún-Gárate

The purpose of this article is to analyze the sociodemographic and economic determinants underlying sport participation and consumer expenditure on sport. The methodological approach is based on ordered probit models. Empirical results from data obtained by means of a questionnaire survey in Spain indicate the need for different sport management strategies in each of these areas. On the one hand, the results confirm the positive influence of variables such as gender and age, and the negative influence of some professional status categories. Neither low levels of education nor personal income are barriers to the practice of sport. Hence, time availability is a major barrier to expand the base of participants or increase the intensity of participation. On the other hand, consumer expenditure on sport is determined by gender, education, income levels, and some occupational groups.

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Nicholas M. Watanabe, Hanhan Xue, Joshua I. Newman, and Grace Yan

capacity of stadiums. Based on the body of prior research into the demand for sport ( Borland & MacDonald, 2003 ), we thus propose a framework for investigating consumer demand in esports by analyzing the main economic factors that determine online viewing activity of esports content on the Twitch

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Jeffrey Martin

profession leads many people to assume there is a healthy and viable profession of sport psychology. Why Many Athletes Do Not Want SPPs In this section I discuss why many athletes, parents, coaches, and ADs express so little demand for sport psychology services. I rely on other authors who, over the years

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James Jianhui Zhang

This lecture was intended to continue the discussions on why and how to establish a distinctive sport management discipline that was initiated by previous Earle F. Zeigler Lecture Award recipients. Through applying the dual process theory (Dijksterhuis & Nordgren, 2006), it was intended to explore the differences between tangible and intangible variables, how they have been studied as distinct perspectives, and how they can be integrated through two application examples, one on service quality of sport event operations and the other on market demand for sport events. Hopefully, this lecture would help reenergize the discussions and inquiries on this important matter. These illustrations are certainly debatable and subject to further empirical examinations.

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B. David Tyler and Joe Cobbs

Rivalry is ubiquitous across sports, yet the representation and specification of rivalry varies widely. Such discrepancy poses problems when distinguishing between multiple out-groups and when employing rivalry to explain related questions such as demand for sport consumption. In this paper, we critically examine the many differing conceptions of rivalry and to discern properties of rivalry across different sports. We survey college football fans (N = 5,304) to empirically test the exclusivity, scale, and symmetry of rivalry; then, we replicate the study twice in the context of professional sports (1,649 National Football League fans; 1,435 National Hockey League fans). Results consistently indicate that fans perceive multiple rivals (nonexclusive), rivalry intensity varies among rivals (continuous in scale), and opposing fans rarely share equivalent perceptions of the rivalry (bidirectional). Accordingly, we develop and test a parsimonious 100-point rivalry allocation measure that specifies these three properties of rivalry.

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Adam Karg, Jeremy Nguyen, and Heath McDonald

Perspectives Research considering demand for sport consumption, and in particular attendance behavior, is prolific, largely from two perspectives. First, a large body of work has focused on the marketing perspective. In sum, this body of work utilizes predominantly survey methods and is focused on determinants

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Nicholas M. Watanabe, Stephen Shapiro, and Joris Drayer

( 6 ), 619 – 632 . doi:10.1123/JSM.2014-0229 10.1123/JSM.2014-0229 Watanabe , N.M. , Yan , G. , Soebbing , B.P. , & Fu , W. ( 2019 ). Air pollution and attendance in the Chinese Super League: Environmental economics and the demand for sport . Journal of Sport Management, 33 ( 4 ), 289

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Robyn Lubisco, Genevieve F.E. Birren, and Ryan Vooris

recovered and demand for sport management degrees and/or programs is up. It also seems apparent that colleges and universities are investing time and money into sport management programs. It has been 10 years since the United States entered into a recession, and currently, there are no signs that the