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Matthew J. Smith and Oliver R. Runswick

other aspects of overall health, daily living, and sporting performance ( Newman, Howells, & Fletcher, 2016 ). Rice et al. ( 2016 ) highlighted the intense demands that elite athletes face, and research findings have demonstrated the significant incidence of mental ill health in elite athlete

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Matthew R. Blair, Nathan Elsworthy, Nancy J. Rehrer, Chris Button and Nicholas D. Gill

and physiological demands on the players, less is known as to the impact these have on the referee. There has been limited research into the physical demands of rugby union refereeing, notable investigations being with English Premiership officials 5 and New Zealand Division 2 referees. 6 More

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Patrick G. Campbell, Jonathan M. Peake and Geoffrey M. Minett

The specificity of training principle states that training adaptations are closely related to the training stimulus and is considered important to optimize physical performance. 1 Training practices in rugby union have predominantly focused on the physical and physiological demands of match play

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Elizabeth A. Taylor, Molly Hayes Sauder and Cheryl R. Rode

globalization, to economic conditions, to technological changes ( Scobey, 2012 ). Bentley, Coates, Dobson, Goedegebuure, and Meek ( 2012 ) neatly summarize the position of colleges and universities by saying they now face “an increased range of demands, expectations, and opportunities” (p. 240). As Scobey

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Davide Ferioli, Diego Rucco, Ermanno Rampinini, Antonio La Torre, Marco M. Manfredi and Daniele Conte

substantially affect GBD intensity. 4 – 10 In addition, GBD rules are commonly modified by coaches to change the technical–tactical demands of the competition according to the goal of the training. Limiting the number of dribbles for each player to 1 or no dribble (ND) is one of the most adopted rules to

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Tania Pereira, John Durocher and Jamie Burr

-road vehicle riding on trails demonstrate the demand on riders to be between 40% and 50% of VO 2 max, with clear differences depending on the type of vehicle used. 14 This demonstrates that despite the locomotive work being accomplished by the horse or vehicle, the demand on the rider can vary considerably as

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Mário A.M. Simim, Gustavo R. da Mota, Moacir Marocolo, Bruno V.C. da Silva, Marco Túlio de Mello and Paul S. Bradley

capacity measures ( Özkan et al., 2012 ; Simim et al., 2013 , 2017 ). Thus, research has yet to examine the physiological and metabolic demands of AS match-play. The physical demands of able-bodied soccer matches have traditionally been determined using match analysis in addition to physiological and

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Mike Stoker, Ian Maynard, Joanne Butt, Kate Hays and Paul Hughes

the demands of training (via the manipulation of task, performer, and environmental stressors) to control the difficulty of the training session. Task stressors involved manipulating the rules of play, performer stressors involved manipulating the physical and psychological functioning of an athlete

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Martin Roderick and Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson

respect, but the unrelenting nature of public exposure can engender a feeling that their “private” personal identity is routinely “contaminated” by the demands of their social identity as a highly visible professional sportsperson. The tensions individuals experience between their social identity

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Linda Paschen, Tim Lehmann, Miriam Kehne and Jochen Baumeister

, 29 ), whereas cognitive flexibility means changing focus of attention to quickly switch perspectives and to flexibly adjust to new demands, rules, or priorities. It is also termed as task switching or shifting ( 9 , 10 , 29 ). Standardized neuropsychological measurements often assess both speed of