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Kazuhiro Harada, Sangyoon Lee, Sungchul Lee, Seongryu Bae, Yuya Anan, Kenji Harada and Hiroyuki Shimada

The increase in the population with dementia is widely recognized as one of the most important issues of public health in aged societies ( Brookmeyer, Johnson, Ziegler-Graham, & Arrighi, 2007 ). Cognitive impairment is associated with physical performance ( Ayán, Cancela, Gutiérrez, & Prieto, 2013

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Karin Hesseberg, Hege Bentzen, Anette Hylen Ranhoff, Knut Engedal and Astrid Bergland

Maintenance of physical activity and good physical fitness is important for functional independence. This study had two aims: examine the physical fitness level in older persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia, and examine the relationship between the components of physical fitness and cognitive domains in this group. The cross-sectional study included community-living older people ≥ 65 years of age with MCI or dementia. Physical fitness and cognition were assessed using the Senior Fitness Test and five cognitive tests. Most of the participants scored below the criteria for maintaining physical independence in later years. There were significant associations between the components of physical fitness and cognition, except flexibility. Declines in executive function were most related to declines in physical fitness. These factors should receive more attention in people with MCI and dementia because they risk losing independence.

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Nicolas Hobson, Sherry L. Dupuis, Lora M. Giangregorio and Laura E. Middleton

The worldwide prevalence of dementia was nearly 50 million in 2015 and is projected to reach 131.5 million by 2050 ( Prince, Comas-Herrera, Knapp, Guerchet, & Karagiannidou, 2016 ). As there is no pharmaceutical treatment to prevent or reverse dementia, alternative approaches to prevent dementia

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Nicolas Farina, Laura J. Hughes, Amber Watts and Ruth G. Lowry

used with older adult samples do not have proven reliability and validity in this population ( Falck, McDonald, Beets, Brazendale, & Liu-Ambrose, 2015 ; Kowalski, Rhodes, Naylor, Tuokko, & MacDonald, 2012 ). People with dementia not only perform less physical activity than healthy older adults ( Boyle

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Lindsey Brett, Victoria Traynor, Paul Stapley and Shahla Meedya

Dementia is a syndrome characterized by cognitive decline and changes in emotional control, social behavior, and physical performance ( Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2011 ; World Health Organization, 2016 ). When dementia progresses, individuals often require more assistance with

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Claudia Meyer, Sophie Hill, Keith D. Hill and Briony Dow

Dementia is a progressive neurological disease affecting memory, attention, and decision-making capacity, with over 300,000 people currently experiencing dementia in Australia ( Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2012 ). Falls are a concern for people with dementia, with 50–90% falling

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Rebekka Pomiersky, Bastian Abel, Christian Werner, André Lacroix, Klaus Pfeiffer, Martina Schäufele and Klaus Hauer

Positive effects of physical activity (PA) on health outcomes, such as the prevention of stroke, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and depression, are well documented for the older population ( Chodzko-Zajko et al., 2009 ). Sedentary, multimorbid persons with dementia (PwD) represent a high

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Kayla Regan, Felicia White, David Harvey and Laura E. Middleton

There were nearly 50 million people living with dementia worldwide in 2016 ( Prince, Comas-Herrera, Knapp, Guerchet, & Karagiannidou, 2016 ). Dementia has significant social and economic impacts on the society, the family, and the individual living with the disease. At a societal level, informal

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Yolanda Barrado-Martín, Michelle Heward, Remco Polman and Samuel R. Nyman

Dementia is estimated to affect 46.8 million people worldwide ( Alzheimer’s Disease International, 2015 ), with advancing age being an important contributor to its prevalence ( World Health Organization, 2015 ). Because of increasing life expectancy and the resultant increase in the number of

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Anna-Eva Prick, Jacomine de Lange, Erik Scherder, Jos Twisk and Anne Margriet Pot

Today, 47.5 million people live with dementia worldwide and this number is estimated to increase to 131.5 million by the year 2050 ( Prince et al., 2015 ). Consistent with policy initiatives to stimulate the ‘self-reliance’ of older people resulting in providing care at home where possible, the