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Dimitrios Challoumas and Andreas Artemiou

received and the quality and effectiveness of the opposing block and defense. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of VJH and SS with AE as well as identify possible associations of anthropometric and demographic factors (including common volleyball injuries) with VJH, SS, and AE. We

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Anders Grøntved, Grete Skøtt Pedersen, Lars Bo Andersen, Peter Lund Kristensen, Niels Christian Møller and Karsten Froberg

Independent associations between personal- and demographic characteristics and physical activity in 3–6 year old children attending preschool were identified in this study. Boys spent a larger proportion of the time on moderate-and-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; p < .001) and had a higher total physical activity level compared with girls (p < .001). The 3–4 year old children spent less time on MVPA and had a lower total physical activity level compared with both 4–5 (p < .01) and 5–6 year old children (p < .001). The individual preschool, gender and age of preschool children were strong predictors of physical activity (R2-total model=(0.36−0.39)) during preschool attendance.

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Karen C. Smith, Griffin L. Michl, Jeffrey N. Katz and Elena Losina

. Meteorologic variables associated with MVPA at P -values < .1 were advanced into multivariable models. Multivariable models adjusted for demographic factors (age, sex, and income); clinical factors (BMI, musculoskeletal disease burden, and mental health); impulsivity (delay discounting); Fitbit nonwear; team

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Angela Maria Hoyos-Quintero and Herney Andrés García-Perdomo

, Bonvin et al 8 treats education (teacher training) as a factor related to physical activity in children. Biologico-Demographic Factors According to Hannon and Brown 11 and Schmutz et al, 19 the interaction between moderate PA and age is statistically significant ( P  <. 001), and in their view, it

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Karin A. Pfeiffer, Marsha Dowda, Kerry L. McIver and Russell R. Pate

This study examined correlates of objectively measured physical activity (PA) in a diverse sample of preschool children (age 3–5 years; n = 331). Accelerometer min·hr−1 of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and nonsedentary activity (NSA) were the outcome measures. Correlations among potential correlates and PA ranged from r = −0.12−0.26. Correlates in the final MVPA model were age, race, sex, BMI Z score, and parent perception of athletic competence, explaining 37% of the variance. The NSA model included the latter two variables, explaining 35% of the variance. Demographic factors were correlates of PA; parent perceptions of children’s competence may be important regarding preschoolers’ PA.

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Toni A. Hilland, Nicola D. Ridgers, Gareth Stratton and Stuart J. Fairclough

The study investigated associations between selected physical activity correlates among 299 adolescents (90 boys, age 12–14 years) from 3 English schools. Physical activity was assessed by self-report and accelerometry. Correlates represented biological, predisposing, and demographic factors as described in the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model. Boys engaged in more self-reported (p < .01) and accelerometer assessed physical activity than girls (p = .02). Positive associations between sex (male), BMI, Perceived PE Ability, Perceived PE Worth, number of enrolled students, and physical activity outcomes were evident (p < .05). School-based physical activity promotion should emphasize sex-specific enhancement of students’ perceived PE competence and enjoyment.

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Brian McNamara

This study sought to identify factors associated with computer resistance for employees within subsets of three segments of the sport industry. Seven hypotheses were developed to test the relationship between computer resistance and various independent variables, including assorted demographic factors and an employee’s background. Prior hands-on computer experience was the most important determinant of the extent of computer resistance. Another important determinant was age, with younger employees being less computer resistant than older employees. Other characteristics associated with computer resistance included number of years in present employment and exposure to computer education.

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Robert H. Friis, Wendy L. Nomura, Christine X. Ma and James H. Swan

Walking for exercise might counteract the effects of a sedentary lifestyle. We examined the demographic and health-related predictors of walking 1 mile per week or more among the elderly. Data were from the 1984 Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants were 7,527 adults age 70 years or older. Demographic factors related to walking were younger age, college-level education, being unmarried, and higher income. Health-related variables associated with walking included positive self-perception of health, internal health locus of control, and absence of activity limitations. The prevalence of regular walking for exercise was low in the study population (38% and 26% for men and women, respectively). Interventions that increase the internal health locus of control might be effective in increasing walking among the elderly.

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Alanna Harman and Alison Doherty

This study examined the psychological contract of volunteer youth sport coaches to determine the content, variation, and influences to its development. Interviews were conducted with 22 volunteer coaches of team sports, representing different levels of play (recreational, competitive), coaching tenure (novice, experienced), and gender (female, male), who were sampled to account for the potential variation based on these demographic factors. The findings revealed that volunteer coaches possessed both transactional and relational expectations of themselves and their club. Coaches’ most frequently cited expectations of themselves were technical expertise (transactional), and leadership (relational), while their most frequently cited expectations of the club were fundamental resources and club administration (transactional), and coach support (relational). Variation was found by different levels of play (recreational, competitive) and coaching tenure (novice, experienced). The coaches’ psychological contract was shaped predominately by sources external to the club. Implications for managing the psychological contract of volunteer youth sport coaches and directions for future research are discussed.

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Karin I. Proper, Ester Cerin and Neville Owen


There is an inverse relationship between individual socio-economic status (SES) and amount of occupational physical activity. The role of the socio-economic environment is, however, less clear. This study examined the independent influences of neighborhood and individual SES on absolute and relative amount of occupational physical activity. It also examined the moderating effects of neighborhood SES on the relationship between individual SES and occupational physical activity.


Employees (n = 1236) resident in high or low SES neighborhoods were assessed on socio-demographic factors, including educational attainment and household income, and physical activity.


Neighborhood SES and individual SES were independently inversely related to absolute and relative amount of occupational physical activity. Significant interactions between neighborhood SES and level of educational attainment in the contribution of total and vigorous occupational physical activity to total physical activity were found.


Neighborhood SES can function as a moderator in the relationship between individual SES and occupational physical activity.