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Keishi Soga, Keita Kamijo, and Hiroaki Masaki

, & Kramer, 2015 for a review). For example, a cross-sectional study using a hippocampus-dependent relational memory task in children ( Chaddock et al., 2010 ) has indicated that greater aerobic fitness is associated with larger hippocampal volume and superior memory performance. A longitudinal, randomized

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Madeleine Pape and Fiona McLachlan

proceeds as follows: the many privileges afforded to men in the public sphere of work and politics rely on the (classed and racialized) ideology of the male breadwinner and protector, upon whom the female homemaker partner in the presumed heterosexual household is deemed dependent for her economic security

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Kym J. Williams, Dale W. Chapman, Elissa J. Phillips, and Nick Ball

, 9 resulting in unique subject-dependent load–power profiles and optimal load recommendations observed between weaker and stronger subjects. 1 Alterations in fiber-type distribution, fiber arrangement, and motor unit recruitment strategies have been observed when comparing athletes with distinctly

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Remco J. Baggen, Jaap H. van Dieën, Sabine M. Verschueren, Evelien Van Roie, and Christophe Delecluse

adipose tissue. 15 So far, no studies have investigated whether differences in maximum voluntary excitation between isometric and dynamic contractions are age dependent. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to determine if there is an interaction effect for age and contraction mode. The second

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William H. Clark and Jason R. Franz

Some evidence suggests that muscle stiffness is activation dependent 6 ; however, it remains unclear precisely how the neuromechanical behavior of the triceps surae muscles and series elastic tendon interact to modulate k A , with implications for functional activities such as walking. In walking, k A

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Jonathan M. Taylor, Tom W. Macpherson, Iain R. Spears, and Matthew Weston

The ability to repeatedly perform sprints has traditionally been viewed as a key performance measure in team sports, and the relationship between repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and performance has been explored extensively. However, when reviewing the repeated-sprint profile of team-sports match play it appears that the occurrence of repeated-sprint bouts is sparse, indicating that RSA is not as important to performance as commonly believed. Repeated sprints are, however, a potent and time-efficient training strategy, effective in developing acceleration, speed, explosive leg power, aerobic power, and high-intensity-running performance—all of which are crucial to team-sport performance. As such, we propose that repeated-sprint exercise in team sports should be viewed as an independent variable (eg, a means of developing fitness) as opposed to a dependent variable (eg, a means of assessing fitness/performance).

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Alessia Longo and Ruud Meulenbroek

the relative phase. The aim was to establish a baseline of time-dependent movement variability measures for future clinical studies. In general, manual work in occupational settings involves bimanual movements. Experimentally, such movements can be investigated by bimanual Fitts’ task in which both

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Alexandre M. Lehnen, Graziela H. Pinto, Júlia Borges, Melissa M. Markoski, and Beatriz D. Schaan

via insulin-independent pathways, especially AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) and CaMKII (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II). Therefore, our study aimed to examine the time–response effects of exercise training and detraining on GLUT4 content, insulin-dependent, and insulin

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Masanori Sakamoto and Hirotoshi Ifuku

ownership from short-term visuotactile integration during RHI was observed, which suggests that tool embodiment obtained by the prolonged use of the badminton racket is less likely to be disturbed. This suggestion is supported by the present study, as years of experience-dependent attenuation of the RHI was

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Catherine D. Ennis and Jepkorir R. Chepyator-Thomson

The purpose of this research was the examination of the field-dependent/independent cognitive style as it related to learning within a Logsdon-based movement curriculum. Subjects consisted of 104 children scoring in the 1st- (field independent) and 4th-quartile (field dependent) on the Children’s Embedded Figures Test. Observation and interview data were collected by the two researchers over a 4-month period. Data were analyzed using constant comparison. Field-independent students’ performance was consistent with teacher expectations during the majority of the classes observed. Field-dependent students experienced difficulty focusing on lesson discussion, following directions, and working independently. The discussion focused on the role of structure and the influence of social relationships on learning behaviors of field-dependent children.