soccer academies. It also examined how in this context burnout and depression might be related to perfectionism among junior athletes. We first define and describe athlete burnout, depressive symptoms, and perfectionism, as well as review research examining them in sport. We then discuss research that
Esmie P. Smith, Andrew P. Hill, and Howard K. Hall
Johanna Belz, Jens Kleinert, Jeannine Ohlert, Thea Rau, and Marc Allroggen
There is strong evidence that physical activity and exercise have a positive effect on mental health ( Paluska & Schwenk, 2000 ; Ströhle et al., 2007 ). One might assume, therefore, that competitive athletes are less susceptible to mental disorders such as depression. A recent meta-analysis and a
Emily Kroshus, Sara P.D. Chrisman, David Coppel, and Stanley Herring
Mental health disorders often present during the adolescent years ( Kessler et al., 2005 ) and are not uncommon, with nearly one in ten U.S. adolescents experiencing clinically significant depression or anxiety annually ( Avenevoli et al., 2015 ) and 4% having ever attempted suicide ( Nock et
Richard E. Tahtinen and Hafrun Kristjansdottir
athletes transition into elite sports ( Rice et al., 2016 ). It is not until recently however that the prevalence of mental health disorders, such as anxiety and depression, have been systematically explored among athlete populations. Previous studies have reported highly variable prevalence rates in
Michael Amrhein, Harald Barkhoff, and Elaine M. Heiby
Although research on the psychological correlates of ocean surfing is scarce, substantial anecdotal evidence suggests that the sport offers a uniquely positive experience. Prior research has demonstrated that surfers report fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety than normative groups, but no explanation has been identified. Greater spirituality has been correlated with lower depression and anxiety, and many surfers have described surfing as a spiritual experience, indicating a potential connection. One hundred surfers were recruited from the Hawaiian Islands and the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Participants reported their surfing habits and levels of their spiritual surfing experiences. Standardized tests were used to measure participants’ spirituality, depression, and anxiety levels. Results indicated that surfers reported fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety than most available normative groups. Results also demonstrated that greater spirituality is associated with less depression and more spiritual surfing experiences.
Benjamin J. Levin and Jim Taylor
Surfers are a heterogeneous population with a common interest in riding waves. Surfers qualitatively describe the surfing sensation as a hybrid of meditative and athletic experience. Numerous empirical studies link both meditative experience and exercise with reduced incidence of depression and anxiety; this potentially suggests that surfers may endorse fewer symptoms of either disorder. One hundred surfers (N = 100) were administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and a demographics questionnaire. Results indicate that surfers reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety, and employed emotion-based coping responses to stressful situations significantly less than the general populace. Surfers also employed avoidance-based coping strategies more frequently than the general populace. Future study should evaluate causal relationships between surfing and incidence of depression and anxiety.
Jeannine Ohlert, Thea Rau, and Marc Allroggen
, the aim of the current study was to examine the association between sexual violence experiences and symptoms of depression and well-being in athletes. It was also hoped that the study might further our understanding about the influence of two contextual factors of the incidents, namely experiences of
Fabien Legrand and Jean Philippe Heuze
In this article, we examined the antidepressant influence of an 8-week-long aerobic exercise intervention in which two training parameters were manipulated: exercise frequency and group environment. Twenty-three individuals with elevated symptoms of depression were recruited in a sport and fitness facility and agreed to participate in this 8-week study. They were randomly assigned to three groups: (a) low-frequency exercise (control) (n = 7), (b) high-frequency exercise (n = 8), and (c) high-frequency exercise + group-based intervention (n = 8). Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) at study entry, and at 4 and 8 weeks subsequently. The results showed that those in the high-frequency aerobic exercise experimental groups reported lower depression scores than those in the low-frequency (control) group at 4 weeks (13.2 ± 7.3 and 11.7 ± 3.1 vs. 22.4 ± 7.5) and 8 weeks (10.9 ± 8.1 and 9.6 ± 2.5 vs. 20.7 ± 6.3). However, alleviation in depressive symptoms was not found to be greater in those participants who received a group-based intervention.
Thais R.S. Paulo, Sheilla Tribess, Jeffer Eidi Sasaki, Joilson Meneguci, Cristiane A. Martins, Ismael F. Freitas Jr., Vicente Romo-Perez, and Jair S. Virtuoso Jr.
The aim of this study was to examine the association of physical activity with depression and cognition deficit, separately and combined, in Brazilian older adults. We analyzed data from 622 older adults. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale, while cognitive deficit was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to assess associations of depression and cognitive deficit with sociodemographic, health, and behavioral variables. Prevalence of physical inactivity (< 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/week), depression, and cognitive deficit were 35.7%, 37.4%, and 16.7%. Physical inactivity was associated with depression (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.14–2.94) and with depression and cognitive deficit combined (OR: 4.23, 95% CI: 2.01–8.91). Physically inactive participants were also more likely to present limitations in orientation and language functions. Physical inactivity was associated with depression and also with depression and cognitive deficit combined in older adults.
Kelly Birch, Merritt ten Hope, Michael Malek-Ahmadi, Kathy O’Connor, Sharon Schofield, David Coon, and Walter Nieri
Previous research has found that increased physical activity may provide a protective effect on depression status; however, these studies do not account for cognitive function. This study’s aim was to determine whether cognitive function mediates the association between physical activity depression status in older adults. Data from 501 older adults were used for this analysis. Physical activity had a significant protective effect on depression (OR = 0.761, 95% CI [0.65, 0.89], p = .001). Adjusted analysis yielded an attenuated association (OR = 0.81, 95% CI [0.69, 0.95], p = .01) with a significant interaction for physical activity and cognitive function (OR = 0.991, 95% CI [0.985, 0.997], p = .005). MoCA performance also had a significant mediating effect on the relationship between physical activity and depression status (p = .04). These findings suggest that cognitive function is associated with, and does mediate, the relationship between physical activity and depression status.