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Lennart Raudsepp and Eva-Maria Riso

and older say their favorite type of exercise is walking ( Stathokostas & Jones, 2016 ). For these reasons, increased walking has been identified as the most likely way that older adults can achieve healthy levels of physical activity ( Niven & Markland, 2016 ). Depressive symptoms are defined as

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Lennart Raudsepp and Kristi Vink

motivate children to be physically active and to develop lifelong attitudes and habits of healthy lifestyle behaviors. 8 , 13 During the few years from early to middle adolescence, levels of depressive symptoms rise sharply, particularly among girls. 14 Studies from Europe 15 and from North America 16

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Rebecca A. Schlaff, Meghan Baruth, Faith C. LaFramboise, and Samantha J. Deere

Depressive symptoms are common after childbirth, and they can have a significant impact on women and their families. 1 – 3 Within a US population-based sample of women 2 to 9 months postpartum, nearly 12% of women reported experiencing depressive symptoms. 3 Prevalence estimates for clinically

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Matthieu P. Boisgontier, Dan Orsholits, Martina von Arx, Stefan Sieber, Matthew W. Miller, Delphine Courvoisier, Maura D. Iversen, Stéphane Cullati, and Boris Cheval

A recent systematic review has demonstrated that adverse childhood experiences, such as neglect and household dysfunction, were associated with 23 health outcomes (eg, depressive symptoms, anxiety, physical inactivity, obesity). 1 While these results highlight the pervasive harms that adverse

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Richard Tahtinen, Hafrun Kristjansdottir, Daniel T. Olason, and Robert Morris

Within the past decade, depression-related research in athletes has aimed at establishing an improved understanding of athletes’ susceptibility to depression and depressive symptoms ( Golding, Gillingham, & Perera, 2020 ; Gorczynski, Coyle, & Gibson, 2017 ; Wolanin, Gross, & Hong, 2015 ). There

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Fabianna R. de Jesus-Moraleida, Paulo H. Ferreira, Juscelio P. Silva, André G.P. Andrade, Rosangela C. Dias, João Marcos D. Dias, Marcella G. Assis, and Leani S.M. Pereira

. Evidence has demonstrated that PA has a protective role against psychological distress ( Ku, Fox, Chen, & Chou, 2012 ). Depressive symptoms are one of the most prevalent debilitating mental conditions reported by older adults ( Steffens et al., 2000 ), and interventions that aim to increase PA levels may

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Richard Tahtinen, Michael McDougall, Niels Feddersen, Olli Tikkanen, Robert Morris, and Noora J. Ronkainen

shown to vary from 15.6% ( Proctor & Boan-Lenzo, 2010 ) to considerably higher; for instance, Wolanin, Hong, Marks, Panchoo, and Gross ( 2016 ) reported that 21% of male and 28% of female collegiate athletes experienced clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Corresponding rates in college athletes

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Amy E. Mendham, Julia H. Goedecke, Melony C. Fortuin-de Smidt, Lindokuhle Phiri, Louise Clamp, Jeroen Swart, Gosia Lipinska, and Dale E. Rae

increased all-cause mortality 16 and cardiometabolic risk. 3 , 4 , 17 However, the reason for long sleep in South African women living in a low-income communities is uknown. Accordingly, sleep quality and depressive symptoms may be target mechanisms for intervention-based research in low-income settings

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Vanessa J. Harbour, Timothy K. Behrens, Han S. Kim, and Connie L. Kitchens

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine whether college students meeting the vigorous physical activity (VPA) recommendation reported less frequent symptoms of depression than those not meeting the recommendation.

Methods:

A secondary analysis of the Utah Higher Education Health Behavior Survey was conducted. Descriptive statistics and unconditional logistic regressions were calculated.

Results:

The final sample included 8621 participants (age = 21.34 ± 2.6 years). There was a difference in the frequency of depressive symptoms and VPA. Those not meeting the VPA recommendation reported having more frequent depressive symptoms than those meeting the VPA recommendation. Results were consistent by gender.

Conclusion:

In this sample, our data suggest VPA may be associated with a reduction in depressive symptoms. These findings might be indicative of a dose–response relationship between VPA and symptoms of depression in college students.

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Clare Hume, Anna Timperio, Jenny Veitch, Jo Salmon, David Crawford, and Kylie Ball

Background:

This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and depressive symptoms among adolescents.

Methods:

Participants were 155 adolescents (14.4 years ± 0.61) in 2004 (40% boys). Data collection occurred in 2004 and again in 2006. At both time points, participants completed the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC), from which they were classified as having depressive symptoms (≥15) or not (<15). Organized sport and TV viewing were self-reported and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and vigorous (VPA) physical activity and sedentary time were objectively measured. Logistic and linear regression analyses examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between MVPA, VPA, organized sport, TV viewing, sedentary time, and symptoms of depression.

Results:

There were no cross-sectional or longitudinal associations between MVPA, VPA, organized sport, sedentary time, and symptoms of depression among boys or girls. However, having symptoms of depression in 2004 did predict higher TV viewing among adolescent girls in 2006 (approximately 168 minutes/week more TV viewing; P ≤ .001).

Conclusions:

MVPA, VPA, organized sport and objectively-measured sedentary time appeared unrelated to depressive symptoms in this sample, but depressive symptoms predicted increased TV viewing over time among adolescent girls. Further research is required to determine the clinical relevance of this finding.