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Physical Activity and Depression in the Elderly

Patrick J. O’Connor, Louis E. Aenchbacher III, and Rod K. Dishman

Exercise is often recommended to elderly persons for enhancing both physical and mental health. This paper reviews the scientific evidence relating physical activity and reduced depression in the elderly. Population based studies and experimental investigations are summarized and critically evaluated. Included is a discussion of some unique challenges that must be met in order for the relationship between depression and physical activity in the elderly to be adequately studied. The weight of the available population based survey evidence, on noninstitutionalized elderly only, suggests a moderate relationship between self-reported physical inactivity and symptoms of depression. However, there is no compelling experimental evidence that exercise per se is effective in preventing or treating depressive disorders in the elderly. Suggestions aimed at improving future research in this area are offered.

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Screening of Depression and Mental Health in Elite Youth Sports: Differences in Risk Estimation Between the PHQ-2 and the WHO-5

Jens Kleinert, Jeannine Ohlert, and Marion Sulprizio

discuss whether the use of both screening methods is appropriate in youth sports and whether there are differences in the results of the two instruments. Depressive disorders are not uncommon in adolescence. Globally, 34% of adolescents aged 10–19 years are at risk for developing clinical depression

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The Association between Physical Activity and Depression in Older Depressed Adults

Kathleen A. Moore, Michael A. Babyak, Carrie E. Wood, Melissa A. Napolitano, Parinda Khatri, W. Edward Craighead, Steve Herman, Ranga Krishnan, and James A. Blumenthal

Previous studies of younger, healthy individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between physical activity and depression. The present study addressed the relation between self-reported physical activity and symptoms of depression in 146 men and women aged 50 years and older with major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients who met clinical criteria for MDD completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Minnesota Leisure-Time Activity Questionnaire (MQ). Multiple regression analysis indicated that lower levels of physical activity were associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p = .04), after adjusting for age and gender. The implications of these findings for the treatment and prevention of depression are discussed.

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The Prevalence of Mental Health Conditions Among High School and Collegiate Student-Athletes: A Systematic Review

James E. Kaishian and Regina M. Kaishian

The physical impacts of overtraining, sport specification, and burnout are well documented in the literature; however, the state of the student-athlete’s (SA’s) mental health is something that needs to be investigated more comprehensively. Literature on SA mental health has gained prevalence within the last 5 years. The combination of pressure from sport and academics, as well as the stigmatization of clinical mental health treatment, can have a significant effect on the SA’s psyche. This review explores the prevalence of mental health conditions (MHCs) in high school and collegiate SAs. This includes signs and symptoms of mental health diagnoses to include substance- and alcohol-related addictive disorders and risk factors of such. A systematic review of the CINAHL, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, APA PsycINFO, and Rehabilitation & Sports Medicine resource databases was conducted. The initial search yielded 855 results. Following double screening, 22 studies were included, all of which were deemed medium to high quality. The findings indicate an alarming presence of MHCs ranging from risk factors of alcohol use and major depressive disorders among SAs. There was a high prevalence of mental health issues among SAs who are Black, Indigenous, people of color (BIPOC), and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer (LGBTQ). In most cases, participation in competitive athletics (varsity) did not contribute to additional MHCs for SAs. Sport psychologists should play a role in mental health programming within athletic departments. Athletic departments should develop proactive, targeted strategies to address MHCs for SAs.

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Evidence Map of Yoga for Depression, Anxiety, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Wei Duan-Porter, Remy R. Coeytaux, Jennifer R. McDuffie, Adam P. Goode, Poonam Sharma, Hillary Mennella, Avishek Nagi, and John W. Williams Jr.


This study describes evidence of yoga’s effectiveness for depressive disorders, general anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults. We also address adverse events associated with yoga.


We searched multiple electronic databases for systematic reviews (SRs) published between 2008 and July 2014, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) not identified in eligible SRs, and ongoing RCTs registered with


We identified 1 SR on depression, 1 for adverse events, and 3 addressing multiple conditions. The high-quality depression SR included 12 RCTs (n = 619) that showed improved short-term depressive symptoms (standardized mean difference, –0.69, 95% confidence interval, –0.99 to –0.39), but there was substantial variability (I2 = 86%) and a high risk of bias for 9 studies. Three SRs addressing multiple conditions identified 4 nonrandomized studies (n = 174) for GAD/PD and 1 RCT (n = 8) and 2 nonrandomized studies (n = 22) for PTSD. We separately found 1 RCT (n = 13) for GAD and 2 RCTs (n = 102) for PTSD. Collectively, these studies were inconclusive for the effectiveness of yoga in treating GAD/PD and PTSD. The high-quality SR for adverse events included 37 primary reports (n = 76) in which inversion postures were most often implicated. We found 5 ongoing trials (3 for PTSD).


Yoga may improve short-term depressive symptoms, but evidence for GAD, PD, and PTSD remain inconclusive.

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Physical Activity During Adolescence and Mental Health in Early Adulthood: Findings From the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study

Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro da Silva, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Helen Gonçalves, Charles Phillipe de Lucena Alves, Felipe Mendes Delpino, Rafaela Costa Martins, and Fernando César Wehrmeister

during adolescence. Mental Health at 22 Years For this study, we evaluated 2 outcomes: major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. These outcomes were assessed by trained psychologists using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a structured diagnostic interview for

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Why Is Exercise Underutilized in Clinical Practice Despite Evidence It Is Effective? Lessons in Pragmatism From the Inclusion of Exercise in Guidelines for the Treatment of Depression in the British National Health Service

Panteleimon Ekkekakis

: Definition, Prevalence, and Treatment According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association ( 2013 ), a diagnosis of major depressive disorder should be issued if a patient reports at least five of the following symptoms over the same 2-week period, assuming that these

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Cost-Utility of an Exercise Referral Scheme Versus Doing Nothing in Flemish Adults: Exploring the Impact of Key Assumptions

Amber Werbrouck, Masja Schmidt, Koen Putman, Steven Simoens, Nick Verhaeghe, and Lieven Annemans

is a reduced risk of developing specific diseases determined from the literature. Incidence rates were retrieved from the GBD study. 24 For all diseases except depressive disorders, risk reductions were also derived from the GBD study. 31 For these diseases, risk reductions were dose dependent. As

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Do Exercisers With Musculoskeletal Injuries Report Symptoms of Depression and Stress?

Mia Beck Lichtenstein, Claire Gudex, Kjeld Andersen, Anders Bo Bojesen, and Uffe Jørgensen

important to assess in athletes with injury. People with depressive disorder often report poorer quality of life than healthy controls, 14 and adolescent athletes with self-reported injuries were found to have lower health-related quality of life than their uninjured peers. 3 In the clinical context

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Depressive Symptoms Are Associated With Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Time in Bed Among Working-Aged Men and Women

Pauliina Husu, Kari Tokola, Henri Vähä-Ypyä, Harri Sievänen, and Tommi Vasankari

.pmedr.2018.03.005 10.1016/j.pmedr.2018.03.005 Choi , K.W. , Chen , C.-Y. , Stein , M.B. , Klimentidis , Y.C. , Wang , M.-J. , Koenen , K.C. , Smoller , J.W , & Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. ( 2019 ). Assessment of bidirectional relationships