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Jay Johnson, Michelle D. Guerrero, Margery Holman, Jessica W. Chin, and Mary Anne Signer-Kroeker

known regarding Canadian student-athletes’ hazing practices, attitudes toward hazing, and hazing prevention strategies, a descriptive statistical approach was taken in the current study. Results Hazing Experiences To assess athletes’ experiences with hazing behaviors, a list of 22 hazing behaviors was

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Christianne M. Eason, Stephanie M. Singe, and Kelsey Rynkiewicz

are inadequate to meet demands. 20 Therefore, the purpose of this study was to gather descriptive data regarding the WFG of collegiate athletic trainers. The collegiate setting was selected because it currently represents one of the highest employment percentage categories of National Athletic

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Scott W. Cheatham

survey and document responses in the knowledge, clinical application, and use of RM devices among allied health professionals in the United States. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive survey study was approved by the California State University Dominguez Hills Institutional Review Board (IRB

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Prashant Meshram, Omar Yasser, Jacob Joseph, Kian Larijani, Andrea Lopes Sauers, Uma Srikumaran, and Edward G. McFarland

used to administer the survey had an option in its application settings to “allow survey to be taken only once.” This option was used to ensure that a single participant did not respond to the survey more than once. Statistical Analyses Descriptive statistics were used to report categorical and

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Kobe C. Houtmeyers, Arne Jaspers, and Pedro Figueiredo

collection and storage of data) and data integrity (ie, the consistency, completeness, and accuracy of data) (for more information and guidelines, see Varley et al 5 ). Figure 1 —A conceptual data analytics framework for elite sport (adapted from Delen and Ram 6 ). The first step is descriptive analytics

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Yani L. Dickens, Judy Van Raalte, and Russell T. Hurlburt

 al.’s ( 2016 ) definition does not solve the problematics of retrospective reports, questionnaires, ESM, EMA, and think-aloud methods discussed above. The present study considers whether it is possible and desirable to apprehend self-talk using Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES), a method that is designed

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Manuel Trinidad-Fernández, Manuel González-Sánchez, and Antonio I. Cuesta-Vargas

data over repeated measures between scapula positions using this new method in humans. Methods Study Design A cross-sectional study with a repeated-measures descriptive test–retest design was employed for the evaluation of this new tracking method. Participants Young adults (18–30 y old), who were

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Markus Vagle, Torstein Dalen-Lorentsen, Håvard Moksnes, Joar Harøy, John Bjørneboe, and Thor Einar Andersen

qualities. Thus, the aim of this study was to map anthropometric and physical performance profiles of Norwegian female premier league players. Methods Study Design This is a descriptive study of Norwegian premier league female players. In preseason, January through mid-April 2020, all 10 teams participating

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James Hardy, Kimberley Gammage, and Craig Hall

In this descriptive study, the four Ws (i.e., where, when, what, and why) of the use of self-talk were examined. Varsity athletes (78 male, 72 female), with a mean age of 20.68 years (SD = 1.90) read a self-statement oriented definition of self-talk and then answered the four questions in an open-ended format. Athletes reported using self-talk most frequently while partaking in their sports (when), at sport related venues (where). The “what” or content of self-talk use was categorized into five themes: nature, structure, person, task instructions, and miscellaneous. With regard to why athletes use self-talk, two main themes emerged from the data: cognitive and motivational. It was possible to further classify the two themes into seemingly specific and general levels, similar to Paivio’s (1985) classification of athletes’ use of mental imagery. Results for the present study provide descriptive data for the development of a conceptual frame work for the use of self-talk.

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Russell R. Pate, Barbara J. Long, and Greg Heath

This paper reviews the descriptive epidemiology of physical activity in adolescents. Large population-based studies were reviewed, along with smaller studies using objective monitoring of physical activity. Estimates showed that adolescents engage in physical activity of any intensity for a mean of one hour per day. Approximately two thirds of males and one quarter of females participate in moderate to vigorous activity for 20 min 3 or more days per week. Activity levels decline with increasing age across adolescence, and this decrease is more marked in females than in males. Comparison of these data to physical activity guidelines for adolescents suggests the vast majority are meeting the guideline of accumulating physical activity. However, a substantial number of males, and the majority of females, are not meeting the guideline for moderate to vigorous physical activity.