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Christianne M. Eason, Stephanie M. Singe, and Kelsey Rynkiewicz

are inadequate to meet demands. 20 Therefore, the purpose of this study was to gather descriptive data regarding the WFG of collegiate athletic trainers. The collegiate setting was selected because it currently represents one of the highest employment percentage categories of National Athletic

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Scott W. Cheatham

survey and document responses in the knowledge, clinical application, and use of RM devices among allied health professionals in the United States. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive survey study was approved by the California State University Dominguez Hills Institutional Review Board (IRB

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Jay Johnson, Michelle D. Guerrero, Margery Holman, Jessica W. Chin, and Mary Anne Signer-Kroeker

known regarding Canadian student-athletes’ hazing practices, attitudes toward hazing, and hazing prevention strategies, a descriptive statistical approach was taken in the current study. Results Hazing Experiences To assess athletes’ experiences with hazing behaviors, a list of 22 hazing behaviors was

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Yani L. Dickens, Judy Van Raalte, and Russell T. Hurlburt

 al.’s ( 2016 ) definition does not solve the problematics of retrospective reports, questionnaires, ESM, EMA, and think-aloud methods discussed above. The present study considers whether it is possible and desirable to apprehend self-talk using Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES), a method that is designed

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Manuel Trinidad-Fernández, Manuel González-Sánchez, and Antonio I. Cuesta-Vargas

data over repeated measures between scapula positions using this new method in humans. Methods Study Design A cross-sectional study with a repeated-measures descriptive test–retest design was employed for the evaluation of this new tracking method. Participants Young adults (18–30 y old), who were

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James Hardy, Kimberley Gammage, and Craig Hall

In this descriptive study, the four Ws (i.e., where, when, what, and why) of the use of self-talk were examined. Varsity athletes (78 male, 72 female), with a mean age of 20.68 years (SD = 1.90) read a self-statement oriented definition of self-talk and then answered the four questions in an open-ended format. Athletes reported using self-talk most frequently while partaking in their sports (when), at sport related venues (where). The “what” or content of self-talk use was categorized into five themes: nature, structure, person, task instructions, and miscellaneous. With regard to why athletes use self-talk, two main themes emerged from the data: cognitive and motivational. It was possible to further classify the two themes into seemingly specific and general levels, similar to Paivio’s (1985) classification of athletes’ use of mental imagery. Results for the present study provide descriptive data for the development of a conceptual frame work for the use of self-talk.

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Russell R. Pate, Barbara J. Long, and Greg Heath

This paper reviews the descriptive epidemiology of physical activity in adolescents. Large population-based studies were reviewed, along with smaller studies using objective monitoring of physical activity. Estimates showed that adolescents engage in physical activity of any intensity for a mean of one hour per day. Approximately two thirds of males and one quarter of females participate in moderate to vigorous activity for 20 min 3 or more days per week. Activity levels decline with increasing age across adolescence, and this decrease is more marked in females than in males. Comparison of these data to physical activity guidelines for adolescents suggests the vast majority are meeting the guideline of accumulating physical activity. However, a substantial number of males, and the majority of females, are not meeting the guideline for moderate to vigorous physical activity.

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James L. Nuzzo, Michael J. Cavill, N. Travis Triplett, and Jeffrey M. McBride

The primary purpose of this investigation was to provide a descriptive analysis of lower-body strength and vertical jump performance in overweight male (n = 8) and female (n = 13) adolescents. Maximal strength was tested in the leg press and isometric squat. Kinetic and kinematic variables were assessed in vertical jumps at various loads. When compared with females, males demonstrated significantly greater (p ≤ .05) absolute maximal strength in the leg press. However, when maximal strength was expressed relative to body mass, no significant difference was observed. There were no significant differences between males and females in vertical jump performance at body mass.

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Regina Markland and Thomas J. Martinek

This study examined the nature and amount of feedback that more successful and less successful high school varsity volleyball coaches gave to their starting and nonstarting volleyball players. Two of the four coaches studied were considered more successful and two were considered less successful, based on previous regular season win-loss percentages. Players of all the coaches (N=41) were also used as subjects and identified as having either a starting or nonstarting role on the team. All subjects were observed on three occasions for 30 minutes per observation during regular season practice. The Cole Descriptive Analysis System (Cole-DAS) was used to observe coach augmented feedback as it was given to individual players in response to skilled performance. A 2 × 2 multivariate analysis of variance was used to describe the effects of (a) success of the coach, (b) role of the player, and (c) both success of the coach and role of the player on the dependent variables of coach augmented feedback. Results indicated that successful coaches varied considerably from less successful coaches in the types of feedback given to their players. Starting players were also found to receive significantly more audio, audiovisual, and immediate terminal feedback than nonstarting players.

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Johanna M. Hurtubise, Cheryl Beech, and Alison Macpherson


There is a lack of research on sex differences for severe injuries across a variety of sports at the collegiate level.


To compare differences in injury severity and concussion between sexes and collegiate sports.


Descriptive epidemiological study.


1,657 injuries were analyzed from collegiate teams at York University.

Data Collection and Analysis:

Injuries were assessed by a certified or student athletic therapist and were categorized based on degree of tissue and/or joint damage as either severe or nonsevere. Severe injuries included those with third degree damage, while all others were classified as nonsevere. Injury severity was compared between the sexes and across different sports using Pearson chisquare analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the relative contribution of each covariate.


Males sustained 1,155 injuries, with 13.3% of them being severe, while females sustained only 502 injuries, 17.7% of which were severe. The odds of sustaining severe injuries among female athletes are 1.4 times the odds of male athletes (OR: 1.40, CI 1.05−1.86). Eleven percent of all female injuries were concussions—significantly more than males (χ2 = 11.03, p = .001). The odds of female athletes having a concussion are 1.9 times the odds of a male athlete (OR: 1.85, CI 1.28−2.67).


Based on our analysis, females are at an increased risk of sustaining a severe injury, particularly concussions. These findings highlight the need for future research into sex and sport-specific risk factors. This may provide information for health care professionals, coaches, and athletes for the proper prevention, on-field care, and treatment of sport injuries.