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Determinants of Attendance in Major League Soccer

John Charles Bradbury

league ( Smith, 2017 ). 3 Researchers have investigated several aspects of MLSs operations, but its newness has limited its study relative to other major sports leagues, especially in regard to the determinants of consumer demand. Early analyses of professional sports leagues by Rottenberg ( 1956

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Physical and Physiological Determinants of Rock Climbing

Robert MacKenzie, Linda Monaghan, Robert A. Masson, Alice K. Werner, Tansinee S. Caprez, Lynsey Johnston, and Ole J. Kemi

, 20 flexibility 20 and aerobic capacity, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) 21 may be less important. However, most of the above studies have assessed only a limited number of determinants; addressed cohorts with limited ability ranges, not always used sports-specific methodology, mostly excluded

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Physical Activity in Mid-Age and Older Women: Lessons from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health

Wendy J. Brown and Toby Pavey

The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) commenced in Australia in 1996 when researchers recruited approximately 40,000 women in three birth cohorts: 1973–1978, 1946–1951, and 1921–1926. Since then participants have completed surveys on a wide range of health issues, at approximately three-year intervals. This overview describes changes in physical activity (PA) over time in the mid-age and older ALSWH cohorts, and summarizes the findings of studies published to date on the determinants of PA, and its associated health outcomes in Australian women. The ALSWH data show a significant increase in PA during mid-age, and a rapid decline in activity levels when women are in their 80s. The study has demonstrated the importance of life stages and key life events as determinants of activity, the additional benefits of vigorous activity for mid-age women, and the health benefits of ‘only walking’ for older women. ALSWH researchers have also drawn attention to the benefits of activity in terms of a wide range of physical and mental health outcomes, as well as overall vitality and well-being. The data indicate that maintaining a high level of PA throughout mid and older age will not only reduce the risk of premature death, but also significantly extend the number of years of healthy life.

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Physiological Determinants of Ultramarathon Trail-Running Performance

Alexandra M. Coates, Jordan A. Berard, Trevor J. King, and Jamie F. Burr

physiological determinants of running performance in standard distances from 5000 m to the marathon have been highly investigated and primarily include measures of aerobic fitness such as maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), lactate threshold or the percentage of sustainable VO 2 max, and running economy. 7

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Implementation Intentions for Exercise and Physical Activity: Who Do They Work For? A Systematic Review

Justin Kompf

achieve adequate amounts of physical activity, efficacious and theory-based interventions that address behavioral determinants are needed to promote physical activity. Prominent theories such as the Theory of Planned Behavior place intentions as the most proximal cognitive determinant of behavior. 3

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Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Health-Related Predictors of Objectively Measured Sedentary Time and Physical Activity During Pregnancy

Melissa A. Jones, Kara Whitaker, McKenzie Wallace, and Bethany Barone Gibbs

determinant variables such as age, job PA, education, employment, and number of children younger than age 5 living in household, strengthens our ability to detect potential differences. Still, these findings should be interpreted with caution due to several limitations. On average, this cohort was more active

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Evidence-Based Classification in Powerchair Football: Determining the Determinants

J.P. Barfield, Stephanie Williams, Madison R. Currie, and Xiuyan Guo

has completed Step 1 of this process by identifying eligible impairment categories. The purpose of the current study was to complete Step 2 in the development of an evidence-based classification system, namely developing the theoretical model of sport performance determinants through an evidence

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Determinants of Virtual Exercise Equipment Use: An Integrated Model Investigation

Navin Kaushal, Kathy Berlin, and Martin S. Hagger

in 2020. This change directs the importance of research to the home environment. The home, or microenvironment, has been recognized as a health behavior determinant in socioecological models ( Sallis et al., 2015 ; Salmon et al., 2020 ), and has demonstrated to be predictive of several health

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How to Motivate Childcare Workers to Engage Preschoolers in Physical Activity

Camille Gagné and Isabelle Harnois


Data available indicate that numerous childcare workers are not strongly motivated to engage children aged 3–5 in physical activity. Using the theory of planned behavior as the main theoretical framework, this study has 2 objectives: to identify the determinants of the intention of childcare workers to engage preschoolers in physical activity and to identify the variables that could be used to develop an intervention to motivate childcare workers to support preschoolers’ physical activity.


174 childcare workers from 60 childcare centers selected at random in 2 regions of Quebec completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing the constructs of the theory of planned behavior as well as past behavior, descriptive norm and moral norm.


Moral norm, perceived behavioral control and subjective norm explained 85% of the variance in intention to engage the children in physical activity.


To motivate childcare workers, it is necessary that they perceive that directors, children’s parents and coworkers approve of their involvement in children’s physical activity. In addition, their ability to overcome perceived barriers (lack of time, loaded schedule, inclement weather) should be developed. Access to a large outdoor yard might also help motivate childcare workers.

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Performance Determinants in Trail-Running Races of Different Distances

Frederic Sabater Pastor, Thibault Besson, Giorgio Varesco, Audrey Parent, Marie Fanget, Jérôme Koral, Clément Foschia, Thomas Rupp, Diana Rimaud, Léonard Féasson, and Guillaume Y. Millet

The physiological determinants of middle- and long-distance running have been widely studied in the past. It is well known that endurance-running performance is predicted by maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ), running economy, and fractional utilization of V ˙ O 2 max , which is sometimes