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John Charles Bradbury

league ( Smith, 2017 ). 3 Researchers have investigated several aspects of MLSs operations, but its newness has limited its study relative to other major sports leagues, especially in regard to the determinants of consumer demand. Early analyses of professional sports leagues by Rottenberg ( 1956

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Robert MacKenzie, Linda Monaghan, Robert A. Masson, Alice K. Werner, Tansinee S. Caprez, Lynsey Johnston and Ole J. Kemi

, 20 flexibility 20 and aerobic capacity, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) 21 may be less important. However, most of the above studies have assessed only a limited number of determinants; addressed cohorts with limited ability ranges, not always used sports-specific methodology, mostly excluded

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Wendy J. Brown and Toby Pavey

The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) commenced in Australia in 1996 when researchers recruited approximately 40,000 women in three birth cohorts: 1973–1978, 1946–1951, and 1921–1926. Since then participants have completed surveys on a wide range of health issues, at approximately three-year intervals. This overview describes changes in physical activity (PA) over time in the mid-age and older ALSWH cohorts, and summarizes the findings of studies published to date on the determinants of PA, and its associated health outcomes in Australian women. The ALSWH data show a significant increase in PA during mid-age, and a rapid decline in activity levels when women are in their 80s. The study has demonstrated the importance of life stages and key life events as determinants of activity, the additional benefits of vigorous activity for mid-age women, and the health benefits of ‘only walking’ for older women. ALSWH researchers have also drawn attention to the benefits of activity in terms of a wide range of physical and mental health outcomes, as well as overall vitality and well-being. The data indicate that maintaining a high level of PA throughout mid and older age will not only reduce the risk of premature death, but also significantly extend the number of years of healthy life.

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Kristof Kipp, Michael T. Kiely, Matthew D. Giordanelli, Philip J. Malloy and Christopher F. Geiser

-sectional differences and monitoring longitudinal changes in maximal dynamic lower-extremity performance. Although the RSI provides simple insight into dynamic lower-extremity performance during a DJ, not much is known about its biomechanical determinants. Beyond the variables of jump height and ground-contact time

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Justin Kompf

achieve adequate amounts of physical activity, efficacious and theory-based interventions that address behavioral determinants are needed to promote physical activity. Prominent theories such as the Theory of Planned Behavior place intentions as the most proximal cognitive determinant of behavior. 3

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Camille Gagné and Isabelle Harnois


Data available indicate that numerous childcare workers are not strongly motivated to engage children aged 3–5 in physical activity. Using the theory of planned behavior as the main theoretical framework, this study has 2 objectives: to identify the determinants of the intention of childcare workers to engage preschoolers in physical activity and to identify the variables that could be used to develop an intervention to motivate childcare workers to support preschoolers’ physical activity.


174 childcare workers from 60 childcare centers selected at random in 2 regions of Quebec completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing the constructs of the theory of planned behavior as well as past behavior, descriptive norm and moral norm.


Moral norm, perceived behavioral control and subjective norm explained 85% of the variance in intention to engage the children in physical activity.


To motivate childcare workers, it is necessary that they perceive that directors, children’s parents and coworkers approve of their involvement in children’s physical activity. In addition, their ability to overcome perceived barriers (lack of time, loaded schedule, inclement weather) should be developed. Access to a large outdoor yard might also help motivate childcare workers.

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Jan G. Bourgois, Gil Bourgois and Jan Boone

TID and overview of the variety of evidence-based (––––) and influencing (- - - -) determinants for a POL or PYR TID in elite athletes. Mean and SD of the different TID models are obtained from literature. 7 , 8 , 10 – 15 LT 1 indicates first lactate threshold; LT 2 , second lactate threshold; POL

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Jonathan Miller, Mark Pereira, Julian Wolfson, Melissa Laska, Toben Nelson and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

–18 y), only 8% of Americans are meeting MVPA recommendations and only 5% of adults in the United States meet MVPA recommendations. 4 There is a clear need to intervene to increase population levels of MVPA in the United States. However, the modifiable determinants of MVPA are poorly understood, and

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Jeffrey A. Rothschild, Andrew E. Kilding and Daniel J. Plews

athletes competing in sports other than running, and in nonelite endurance athletes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and determinants of exercise performed in the overnight-fasted state among endurance athletes of varying backgrounds and competitive levels. Secondary outcomes

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Jeffrey J. Martin

In the last 10-20 years sport psychologists have started to emphasize the value of mental strengths such as self-confidence for disability sport athletes (Martin, 2012). The pinnacle of disability sport competition, the Paralympics, is becoming increasingly competitive, suggesting a strong need for athletes to possess effective mental skills. Like the Olympics there is intense pressure to win at the Paralympics. In the current review article I discuss the body of knowledge in sport psychology that focuses on potential direct and indirect determinants of performance in elite disability sport. The review is organized around a personnel developmental model used by Martin (1999, 2005, 2012). This model is a humanistic model and revolves around foundation qualities, psychological methods and skills, and facilitative and debilitative factors. The premise of the model is also similar to McCann's sentiment that “at the Olympics [Paralympics], everything is a performance issue” (2008, p. 267).