calculate the accuracy rate. In this study, the S2 form was used because it is recommended for use only with clients whose attentional performance is thought to be impaired ( Schuhfried, 2010 ). The time required for this form was about 20 min, including the instruction and practice phase. Determination
Chung-Ju Huang, Hsin-Yu Tu, Ming-Chun Hsueh, Yi-Hsiang Chiu, Mei-Yao Huang, and Chien-Chih Chou
David Giles, Joel B. Chidley, Nicola Taylor, Ollie Torr, Josh Hadley, Tom Randall, and Simon Fryer
the determination of maximal finger flexor strength have been described in the literature, 5 as yet, there are no tests to determine functional aerobic metabolic capacity, delineating steady and nonsteady states in rock climbers. During high-intensity muscular exercise, the time for which exercise
Samantha M. Gray, Joan Wharf Higgins, and Ryan E. Rhodes
, as it is often a necessary ingredient for behavior change ( Hagger & Chatzisarantis, 2008 ; Linke, Robinson, & Pekmezi, 2013 ). There is extensive literature on human motivation ( Ajzen, 1991 ; Clemow, 2008 ; Ryan & Deci, 2000 ) in which one prominent framework is self-determination theory (SDT
Liane S. Lewis, Barnabas Shaw, Srijit Banerjee, Pryscilla Dieguez, James Hernon, Nigel Belshaw, and John M. Saxton
context, we designed an intervention, underpinned by self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985 ), aimed at increasing PA behavior in people at elevated risk of CRC. Our main objective was to examine the effect of the intervention on PA behavior and the underlying motivation to change. It was
Brendon P. Hyndman and Stephen Harvey
training, aligned to self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2017 ). Theoretical Framework The PSTs’ perceptions of the value of using Twitter for HPETE training were interpreted with a SDT approach. As detailed in Chapter 3, SDT is based around the level of motivation an individual has toward
Stephen Dobson and Bill Gerrard
Unlike most major U.S. sport teams, it is common for professional soccer clubs around the world to trade players for cash. This article develops a model of the player-transfer market in soccer in which observed transfer fees are determined by player characteristics, selling-club characteristics, buying-club characteristics, and time effects. The model is based on data on 1,350 transfer fees in English professional soccer from June 1990 to August 1996. The estimated model is used to investigate the rate of inflation in transfer fees. In addition, the determination of transfer fees is considered within different segments of the transfer market. It is found that the determination of transfer fees differs markedly among segments.
Clifford J. Mallett
The coach is central to the development of expertise in sport (Bloom, 1985) and is subsequently key to facilitating adaptive forms of motivation to enhance the quality of sport performance (Mallett & Hanrahan, 2004). In designing optimal training environments that are sensitive to the underlying motives of athletes, the coach requires an in-depth understanding of motivation. This paper reports on the application of self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2000) to coaching elite athletes. Specifically, the application of SDT to designing an autonomy-supportive motivational climate is outlined, which was used in preparing Australia’s two men’s relay teams for the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens.
Georgine Gaisl and Peter Hofmann
Ethical and logistical limitations preclude the routine determination of anaerobic threshold in children by invasive measurement of blood lactate concentrations or ventilatory parameters. A noninvasive field test developed by Conconi can be used to determine anaerobic threshold through analysis of the heart rate curve during increased exercise workloads. Although this test was initially evaluated in adult athletes, recent data indicate that the Conconi test is applicable to children in both laboratory and field settings. Close correlation with lactate-derived anaerobic threshold appears to be possible when utilizing standard testing protocols.
Jonathan Sinclair, Sarah J. Hobbs, Laurence Protheroe, Christopher J. Edmundson, and Andrew Greenhalgh
Biomechanical analysis requires the determination of specific foot contact events. This is typically achieved using force platform information; however, when force platforms are unavailable, alternative methods are necessary. A method was developed for the determination of gait events using an accelerometer mounted to the distal tibia, measuring axial accelerations. The aim of the investigation was to determine the efficacy of this method. Sixteen participants ran at 4.0 m/s ±5%. Synchronized tibial accelerations and vertical ground reaction forces were sampled at 1000 Hz as participants struck a force platform with their dominant foot. Events determined using the accelerometer, were compared with the corresponding events determined using the force platform. Mean errors of 1.68 and 5.46 ms for average and absolute errors were observed for heel strike and of –3.59 and 5.00 ms for toe-off. Mean and absolute errors of 5.18 and 11.47 ms were also found for the duration of the stance phase. Strong correlations (r = .96) were also observed between duration of stance obtained using the two different methods. The error values compare favorably to other alternative methods of predicting gait events. This suggests that shank-mounted accelerometers can be used to accurately and reliably detect gait events.
Catherine E. Amiot, Patrick Gaudreau, and Céline M. Blanchard
The aim of the present study was to verify, during a stressful sport competition, the associations between motivational antecedents and consequences of the coping process. Using a two-wave design, we tested a model that incorporates motivational orientations, coping dimensions, goal attainment, and affective states among athletes (N = 122). Path analyses using EQS revealed that self-determination toward sport positively predicted the use of task-oriented coping strategies during a stressful sport competition, while non-self-determined motivation predicted the use of disengagement-oriented coping strategies. Task-oriented coping, in turn, was positively associated with the level of goal attainment experienced in the competition, whereas disengagement-oriented coping was negatively associated with goal attainment. Finally, level of goal attainment was positively linked to an increase in positive emotional states from pre- to postcompetition, and negatively associated with an increase in negative emotional states. Findings are discussed in light of coping frameworks, self-determination theory, and the consequences of motivational and coping processes on psychological functioning.