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Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on the Vascular and Autonomic Components of the Baroreflex at Rest in Adolescents

Ricardo S. Oliveira, Alan R. Barker, Sascha H. Kranen, Florian Debras, and Craig A. Williams

unlikely to improve following training. Additionally, a better understanding of training effects can be achieved by the imposition of a detraining period. For example, in adolescents’, improvements in resting heart rate variability (HRV), and arterial function at 24 hours were reversed after 72 hours

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Breaking-Up Sedentary Behavior and Detraining Effects on Glycemic Control: A Randomized Crossover Trial in Trained Older Adults

Inês R. Correia, João P. Magalhães, Pedro B. Júdice, Megan Hetherington-Rauth, Sofia P. Freitas, Júlia M. Lopes, Francisco F. Gama, and Luís B. Sardinha

), it is worth clarifying whether short breaks of SB are also sufficient to improve glycemic control in trained older adults. Additionally, no investigation has examined if these interruptions mitigate the deleterious effects of going through a detraining process, where trained older adults temporarily

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Test–Retest Reliability, Training, and Detraining Effects Associated With the Dynavision D2 Mode A Visuomotor Reaction Time Test

Adam J. Wells and Bri-ana D.I. Johnson

repeated ModeA testing are yet to be fully characterized and require additional examination. Moreover, the potential effects of various detraining periods on ModeA performance are yet to be examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to (1) determine how many tests are required to establish a true

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The Effects of 6-Week Training Cessation on Anthropometrics, in-Water Force, Performance, and Kinematics of Young Competitive Swimmers: A Maturity Development Approach

Catarina C. Santos, Mário J. Costa, and Daniel A. Marinho

dry-land strength after the off-season. 9 A weakening in performance 5 or a decrease in energy capacity has also been found. 7 However, data on the effects of detraining on swimming kinetics are still lacking. The few available studies on this subject focus on male adult swimmers and show lower

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Training Session and Detraining Duration Affect Lower Limb Muscle Strength Maintenance in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Yong Yang, Shu-Chen Chen, Chiao-Nan Chen, Chihw-Wen Hsu, Wen-Sheng Zhou, and Kuei-Yu Chien

). Detraining caused by training interruption leads to partial or total loss of training-induced anatomical, physiological, and functional adaptability ( Mujika & Padilla, 2001 ). Even if the detraining duration was as short as 4 weeks, it could cause the loss of resistance training benefits in middle-aged and

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Biophysical Impact of 5-Week Training Cessation on Sprint Swimming Performance

Jesús J. Ruiz-Navarro, Ana Gay, Rodrigo Zacca, Francisco Cuenca-Fernández, Óscar López-Belmonte, Gracia López-Contreras, Esther Morales-Ortiz, and Raúl Arellano

Partial or complete loss of training-induced anatomical, physiological, and functional adaptations is termed detraining. 1 During a training season, it generally occurs as a result of illnesses or injuries, 1 but swimmers typically recover for several weeks in the off-season. 1 , 2 Its duration

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Adaptations in GLUT4 Expression in Response to Exercise Detraining Linked to Downregulation of Insulin-Dependent Pathways in Cardiac but not in Skeletal Muscle Tissue

Alexandre M. Lehnen, Graziela H. Pinto, Júlia Borges, Melissa M. Markoski, and Beatriz D. Schaan

life. We have demonstrated that 1 week of exercise detraining was enough to reverse the beneficial adaptations of 10 weeks of training on GLUT4 content in adipose and cardiac tissues, and 2 weeks of detraining was enough to reverse these adaptations in the gastrocnemius muscle ( Lehnen et al., 2010

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Community-Based Training–Detraining Intervention in Older Women: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study

Helen T. Douda, Konstantina V. Kosmidou, Ilias Smilios, Konstantinos A. Volaklis, and Savvas P. Tokmakidis

This five-year follow-up nonrandomized controlled study evaluated community-based training and detraining on body composition and functional ability in older women. Forty-two volunteers (64.3 ± 5.1 years) were divided into four groups: aerobic training, strength training, combined aerobic and strength, and control. Body composition and physical fitness were measured at baseline, after nine months of training and after three months of detraining every year. After five years of training, body fat decreased, and fat free mass, strength, and chair test performance increased (p < .05) in all training groups. Training-induced favorable adaptations were reversed during detraining but, eventually, training groups presented better values than the control group even after detraining. Thus, nine months of annual training, during a five-year period, induced favorable adaptations on body composition, muscular strength, and functional ability in older women. Three months of detraining, however, changed the favorable adaptations and underlined the need for uninterrupted exercise throughout life.

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Can Aerobic Training Improve Muscle Strength and Power in Older Men?

Dale I. Lovell, Ross Cuneo, and Greg C. Gass

This study examined the effect of aerobic training on leg strength, power, and muscle mass in previously sedentary, healthy older men (70–80 yr). Training consisted of 30–45 min of cycle ergometry at 50–70% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 3 times weekly for 16 wk, then 4 wk detraining, or assignment to a nontraining control group (n = 12 both groups). Training increased leg strength, leg power, upper leg muscle mass, and VO2max above pretraining values (21%, 12%, 4%, and 15%, respectively; p < .05). However, all gains were lost after detraining, except for some gain in VO2max. This suggests that cycle ergometry is sufficient stimulus to improve neuromuscular function in older men, but gains are quickly lost with detraining. For the older population cycle ergometry provides the means to not only increase aerobic fitness but also increase leg strength and power and upper leg muscle mass. However, during periods of inactivity neuromuscular gains are quickly lost.

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The Cycling Physiology of Miguel Indurain 14 Years After Retirement

Iñigo Mujika

Age-related fitness declines in athletes can be due to both aging and detraining. Very little is known about the physiological and performance decline of professional cyclists after retirement from competition. To gain some insight into the aging and detraining process of elite cyclists, 5-time Tour de France winner and Olympic Champion Miguel Indurain performed a progressive cycle-ergometer test to exhaustion 14 y after retirement from professional cycling (age 46 y, body mass 92.2 kg). His maximal values were oxygen uptake 5.29 L/min (57.4 mL · kg−1 · min−1), aerobic power output 450 W (4.88 W/kg), heart rate 191 beats/min, blood lactate 11.2 mM. Values at the individual lactate threshold (ILT): 4.28 L/min (46.4 mL · kg−1 · min−1), 329 W (3.57 W/kg), 159 beats/min, 2.4 mM. Values at the 4-mM onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA): 4.68 L/min (50.8 mL · kg−1 · min−1), 369 W (4.00 W/kg), 170 beats/min. Average cycling gross efficiency between 100 and 350 W was 20.1%, with a peak value of 22.3% at 350 W. Delta efficiency was 27.04%. Absolute maximal oxygen uptake and aerobic power output declined by 12.4% and 15.2% per decade, whereas power output at ILT and OBLA declined by 19.8% and 19.2%. Larger declines in maximal and submaximal values relative to body mass (19.4–26.1%) indicate that body composition changed more than aerobic characteristics. Nevertheless, Indurain’s absolute maximal and submaximal oxygen uptake and power output still compare favorably with those exhibited by active professional cyclists.