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Rainer Blank and Joachim Hermsdörfer

Fast force changes with hand-held objects are an important prerequisite for object manipulation in everyday life. This study examines the development of fastest isometric force changes in a precision grip. One hundred sixty-five children (76 girls, 89 boys), 3–14 years, without neurological abnormalities increased and decreased repetitively isometric grip forces as rapidly as possible by their dominant hand using a small cylindrical pinch grip object (20 g). The frequency of repetitive force changes increased in a linear way from the age of 4 years until about 12 years by 0.23 Hz per year (r 2 = .54) without noticeable gender difference. The ratio of the duration of force increase and decrease slightly declined from 1.05 (4-year-olds) to 0.95 (11- to 14-year-olds). The development of force amplitudes and the mean force were more variable. Temporal parameters become less variable with age, whereas force parameters become more variable. In particular, the temporal parameters of fastest isometric force changes are best predictors for developmental changes. Fastest isometric force changes may be an important basic capacity for fast object manipulation, particularly in young children and in children with movement disorders.

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Sandrine Isoard-Gautheu, Emma Guillet-Descas, Patrick Gaudreau, and Julien Chanal

This study examined (a) the developmental trajectories of athlete burnout perceptions, (b) the gender differences on these trajectories, and (c) the interactions in the developmental trajectories of the three burnout dimensions. A five-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 895 athletes (47.6% female; M age = 15.67). Results of multilevel growth models revealed that during adolescence, “reduced sense of accomplishment” linearly decreased and was higher for girls than boys. Moreover, “emotional/physical exhaustion” increased then decreased, and seemed to have been attenuated at time points in which athletes also had higher levels of “sport devaluation.” Finally, “sport devaluation” increased over time with higher increases for girls than boys. Results of our study depicted the general and the gendered shape of the trajectory of burnout perceptions during adolescence, and underlined the advantages of considering the multifaceted nature of burnout to enable a deeper examination of the within-person synergies in the development of the three dimensions.

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Andrew Mills, Joanne Butt, Ian Maynard, and Chris Harwood

This study examined the factors perceived by successful coaches to underpin optimal development environments within elite English soccer academies. A semistructured interview guide was developed to interview 10 expert coaches about the environments they create for players at a key stage in their development. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and inductively content analyzed. The results identified a wide range of factors resulting in a conceptual framework that explained how these factors interact to underpin an optimal environment. Subcomponents of this framework included organizational core (e.g., advocate a player-driven ideology), adaptability (e.g., embrace novel ideas & approaches), player welfare (e.g., understand players’ world-view), key stakeholder relationships (e.g., build trust with parents), involvement (e.g., encourage players’ ideas/feedback), and achievement oriented (e.g., establish an explicit pathway to senior level). Collectively, the findings highlight the importance of establishing strong, dynamic, organizational cultures at elite youth soccer academies. Ways that academies might be helped to establish such environments are discussed.

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Stewart Cotterill, Richard Cheetham, and Katrien Fransen

made, a clustering of themes emerged. Checks were made with the original transcripts to make sure connections still worked with the primary source materials. This step led to the development of a coherent table of themes. Once the transcripts had been analyzed by this interpretative process, a final

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Jane E. Clark

influenced my journey as a “kinesiologist,” and thought that there was no better way to honor them than to tell my story as a kinesiologist and its intersection with the field’s development. So, perhaps my story might have something to say about kinesiology’s past and about where we are headed in the future

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Siobhan B. Mitchell, Anne M. Haase, and Sean P. Cumming

would suggest that the earlier specialization necessitated by early selection is associated with more negative psychological outcomes such as burnout and reduced enjoyment ( Crane & Temple, 2015 ). Pubertal timing influences both physical (e.g., body shape and size) and psychological development (e

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Otávio Amaral de Andrade Leão, Gregore Iven Mielke, Pedro Curi Hallal, John Cairney, Jorge Mota, Marlos Rodrigues Domingues, Joseph Murray, and Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi

sports in early childhood (<5 y) are associated with improved cognitive and language development during childhood. 10 – 12 Furthermore, meta-analyses of intervention studies that investigated the effects of physical activity on neurodevelopment found that physical activity is likely to improve cognition

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Juanita Weissensteiner, Bruce Abernethy, Damian Farrow, and Sean Müller

The link between the anticipation skills of cricket batsmen and their practice histories was examined. Skilled and lesser skilled batsmen of U15, U20, and adult age completed a temporal occlusion task, in which they were required to use prerelease kinematic information to predict the type and length of delivery being bowled, and a structured interview, in which their accumulated hours of experience in organized and unorganized sporting activities were estimated. Skilled adult and U20 players showed an ability to use prerelease kinematic information to anticipate ball type that was not evident among any other group, and skilled players of all ages were distinguishable in terms of their accumulated hours of cricket-specific experience. Hours of cricket-spe-cific practice, however, explained only a modest percentage of the variance in anticipatory skill. Discussion focuses upon future refinements to the measurement of anticipation and practice history plus the role that variables other than the quantum of cricket experience may play in developing anticipation.

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Roger Russell

phenomenologist—pragmatic in the sense of C.S. Peirce ( Peirce, 1878 ) and W. James ( Gunn, 2000 ). For Feldenkrais a concept was meaningful if it made a difference for individual human development. He was a phenomenologist because his method is drawn from his own experience while subjecting it to rigorous

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Christine W. St. Laurent, Sarah Burkart, Chloe Andre, and Rebecca M.C. Spencer

Early childhood is as an important phase for brain and cognitive development. The early years of life are marked by increased neuroplasticity of the brain and enhancements in cognitive processing and abilities. This age also marks a critical period in the development of school readiness skills and