important to remember that youth sport research is where it is today because of the vision and achievement of pioneering scholars who forged the path in areas of study ( Weiss, 2016 ; Wiggins, 2013 ). Psychology researchers with interest in sport as a developmental context have largely ignored the long
A. Paige Lane, Sergio L. Molina, DaShae A. Tolleson, Stephen J. Langendorfer, Jacqueline D. Goodway and David F. Stodden
; Lubans, Morgan, Cliff, Barnett, & Okely, 2010 ). Identification and description of the underlying developmental dimensions that contribute to skilled performance may allow researchers to understand the mechanisms that relate to the development of intra-task variation in relation to specific skills
Ken Lodewyk and Lauren McNamara
, preferences (recess likes and dislikes and activity choices), space, time, equipment, and location (indoors or outdoors) as a function of gender and developmental level (children and adolescents) during recess. The social–ecological framework ( Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006 ) was used as a theoretical guide
Although the heterogeneity of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) has been well documented, the search for subtypes within the DCD population with distinguishable profiles has been limited. The present study investigated whether a group of 80 children identified as having DCD could be classified into subtypes based on their performances on six perceptuo-motor tasks. Five clusters were identified and are discussed in terms of current understanding of DCD. This exploratory study supports the notion of heterogeneity within DCD samples, with five patterns of dysfunction emerging.
Carlo Di Brina, Roberto Averna, Paola Rampoldi, Serena Rossetti and Roberta Penge
as visual constructive and psychomotor coordination impairments, as a co-occurrence of a developmental coordination disorder (DCD; Jongmans, Smits-Engelsmann, & Schoemaker, 2003 ; Kaplan, Wilson, Dewey, & Crawford, 1998 ). The association of LD with a motor coordination impairment is quite common
Sheila E. Henderson and Leslie Henderson
We consider three issues concerning unexpected difficulty in the acquisition of motor skills: terminology, diagnosis, and intervention. Our preference for the label Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) receives justification. Problems in diagnosis are discussed, especially in relation to the aetiology-dominated medical model. The high degree of overlap between DCD and other childhood disorders appears to militate against its acceptance as a distinct syndrome. In this context, we emphasize the need to determine whether incoordination takes different forms when it occurs alone is combined with general developmental delay or with other specific disorders in children of normal intelligence. Studies of intervention have mostly shown positive effects but do not, as yet, allow adjudication between different sorts of content. We suggest that the study of DCD and its remediation would benefit greatly from the employment of the simple but rich paradigms developed for the experimental analysis of fully formed adult movement skills.
Jo E. Cowden and Carol C. Torrey
The purpose of this study was to investigate performance of developmentally delayed preschoolers on intramodal and intermodal matching tasks in the visual and haptic modalities. The performance of these preschoolers was compared with the learning profile of handicapped children. Further analysis determined the relationship between performance on intra- and intermodal matching tasks and scores on visual motor integration and cognitive matching. Eighteen developmentally delayed preschoolers from ages 3.4 years to 5.11 were involved in four matching conditions: visual-visual, haptic-haptic (intramodal), visual-haptic, and haptic-visual (intermodal). Results of this study indicated that accuracy in all modalities increased as chronological age increased. The learning profile of developmentally delayed preschoolers differed from that of nonhandicapped children: the delayed children scored highest on the haptic-visual task, with the visual-haptic and visual-visual scores only slightly lower, but the haptic-haptic scores markedly lower. No meaningful relationship was apparent between performance in the four modalities and cognitive matching and visual motor integration.
Loriane Favoretto, Zach Hutchison, Claire M. Mowling and Melissa M. Pangelinan
The prevalence of developmental disabilities, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Intellectual Disability (ID), and other developmental delays, has grown from 5.7% in 2014 to 6.99% in 2016 ( Zablotsky, Black, & Blumberg, 2017 ). Individuals with developmental disabilities experience
Mark A. Mon-Williams, Eve Pascal and John P. Wann
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) occurs in a small number of children who present with impaired body/eye coordination. No study of ophthalmic function in DCD exists despite vision’s primary role in perception. Ocular performance was therefore assessed with a battery of tests. Five hundred children aged between 5 and 7 years were involved in the study. Diagnosis of DCD was confirmed for 29 children by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (ABC); 29 control children were randomly selected. Comprehensive examination with a battery of ophthalmic tests did not reveal any significant difference in visual status between the two groups. Strabismus was found in 5 children from both groups. All 5 children with strabismus from the DCD group showed a similar movement profile with the Motor Competence Checklist. While a causal relationship cannot be discounted, the presence of strabismus appears more likely to be a “hard” neurological sign of central damage common to this group. The evidence seems to indicate that a simple ophthalmic difficulty does not explain problems with movement control.
Christopher L. Stevenson
This investigation examined the ways in which, and the rationalizations with which, certain elite athletes juxtaposed the two role-identities of “Christian” and “athlete.” The data were obtained through in-depth interviews with current and former college and professional athletes associated with the Athletes-in-Action (AIA) organization in Western Canada (N=31: 23 males, 8 females). Initial analysis indicated considerable variability in the types of behavior that the athletes, as Christians, saw as acceptable in their sport environments, and yet the majority of these Christian-athletes did not appear to perceive any values-conflict between their Christian faith and their sporting practices. A more detailed examination using both a developmental and an interactionist perspective identified three more or less distinct types of accommodation to the normative expectations associated with the two role-identities (the segregated, selective, and committed types), each of which was associated with different consequences for the athletes’ own behaviors in sport, the values and attitudes they expressed, and the kinds of behaviors they perceived to be acceptable for Christian-athletes.