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Association Between Motor Ability and Handwriting Performance in Children With Probable Developmental Coordination Disorder

Melvin Ibana and Priscila Caçola

Handwriting is a core deficit in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Fifty children were tested with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition; Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Short Form; Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting (ETCH); McMaster Handwriting Assessment Protocol; and Beery-Buktenica Test of Visual–Motor Integration (Beery–VMI–6). The results showed significant differences in components of the ETCH between groups (p < .05) and significant relationships between handwriting (ETCH and Beery–VMI–6) and motor ability measures (r > .30). We conclude that the ETCH and the Beery–VMI–6 are sensitive measures of handwriting ability for children with probable DCD, but more research is needed to identify a gold-standard assessment for evaluating handwriting in this population.

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Long-Term Effects of a Movement Intervention Program for Children With Probable Developmental Coordination Disorder

Ilana Santos de Oliveira, Bárbara Coiro Spessato, Dayana da Silva Oliveira, Romulo José César Lins, and Silvia Wanick Sarinho

The prevalence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is concerning. The DCD affects around 18% of Brazilian children, with an additional 15% considered to be at risk for the condition ( American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ; Valentini, Clark, & Whitall, 2014 ). The DCD is a substantial

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Subtypes of Developmental Coordination Disorder

Deborah Hoare

Although the heterogeneity of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) has been well documented, the search for subtypes within the DCD population with distinguishable profiles has been limited. The present study investigated whether a group of 80 children identified as having DCD could be classified into subtypes based on their performances on six perceptuo-motor tasks. Five clusters were identified and are discussed in terms of current understanding of DCD. This exploratory study supports the notion of heterogeneity within DCD samples, with five patterns of dysfunction emerging.

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Experiences in Physical Education for Children at Risk for Developmental Coordination Disorder

Chantelle Zimmer, Janice Causgrove Dunn, and Nicholas L. Holt

Approximately 5–6% of school-age children are diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013 ). They experience substantial and persistent difficulties in learning and performing coordinated motor skills starting in early childhood, which

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Reading and Writing Skills in Children With Specific Learning Disabilities With and Without Developmental Coordination Disorder

Carlo Di Brina, Roberto Averna, Paola Rampoldi, Serena Rossetti, and Roberta Penge

as visual constructive and psychomotor coordination impairments, as a co-occurrence of a developmental coordination disorder (DCD; Jongmans, Smits-Engelsmann, & Schoemaker, 2003 ; Kaplan, Wilson, Dewey, & Crawford, 1998 ). The association of LD with a motor coordination impairment is quite common

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Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Overarm Throwing in Children With and Without Developmental Coordination Disorder

Nadja Schott and Nancy Getchell

Developmental Coordination Disorder Children diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) display significant impairment in the development of motor coordination that interferes with academic performance and/or activities of daily living, which are not attributable to any other

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Effectiveness of Interventions for Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder in Physical Therapy Contexts: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

Nkechi Offor, Peace Ossom Williamson, and Priscila Caçola


The purpose of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis is to identify the types of interventions in physical therapy contexts that have been explored in children with developmental coordination disorder, the most common variables being addressed, and whether these interventions are effective.


This systematic search of MEDLINE, PEDro, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library identified interventions in physical therapy contexts for children and adolescents with DCD, and studies were screened using these criteria and assessed using the PEDro and NIH quality assessment scales. AMSTAR was used to evaluate systematic reviews and a meta-analysis was conducted.


From the articles reviewed, 29 articles of moderate to good quality were included in the qualitative analysis. Task-oriented approaches as well as motor skill training–based interventions have shown beneficial effects in improving motor function in children with DCD. Data from 14 articles was extracted for inclusion in the meta-analysis, providing support for the effectiveness of physical therapy interventions against inaction.


Researchers recommend the use of task-oriented and traditional physical therapy interventions for children with DCD. In addition, interventions in physical therapy contexts need clear goals and outcome measures for individual children.

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Prefrontal Cortex Activity in Siblings With and Without Developmental Coordination Disorder: An Exploratory Study

Mandy S. Plumb, Megan Charity, Kimberly Milla, Barry Bodt, and Nancy Getchell

Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a common neurodevelopmental motor disorder, affecting about 6% of children between 5 and 11 years old ( American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). Motor impairments may include poor timing, balance, sequencing, and dexterity, which, in turn, affect

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An Exploratory Study of Teachers’ Experiences in Physical Education With Children Thought to Have Developmental Coordination Disorder

Chantelle Zimmer and Janice Causgrove Dunn

Approximately one to two children in every elementary classroom meet the primary diagnostic criteria for developmental coordination disorder (DCD; Missiuna, Rivard, & Pollock, 2004 ). They experience substantial difficulties in learning and performing coordinated motor skills appropriate for their

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Toward an Understanding of Developmental Coordination Disorder

Sheila E. Henderson and Leslie Henderson

We consider three issues concerning unexpected difficulty in the acquisition of motor skills: terminology, diagnosis, and intervention. Our preference for the label Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) receives justification. Problems in diagnosis are discussed, especially in relation to the aetiology-dominated medical model. The high degree of overlap between DCD and other childhood disorders appears to militate against its acceptance as a distinct syndrome. In this context, we emphasize the need to determine whether incoordination takes different forms when it occurs alone is combined with general developmental delay or with other specific disorders in children of normal intelligence. Studies of intervention have mostly shown positive effects but do not, as yet, allow adjudication between different sorts of content. We suggest that the study of DCD and its remediation would benefit greatly from the employment of the simple but rich paradigms developed for the experimental analysis of fully formed adult movement skills.