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Parental Influence on the Physical Activity Behaviors of Young Children With Developmental Disabilities

Byungmo Ku, Megan MacDonald, Bridget Hatfield, and Kathy Gunter

Developmental disabilities (DDs) refer to combined conditions caused by an impairment in physical, learning, language, or behavior areas ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015 ). This category includes but is not limited to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum

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Quality of Participation Experiences in Special Olympics Sports Programs

Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Natasha Bruno, Krystn Orr, Roxy O’Rourke, Virginia Wright, Rebecca Renwick, Kirsten Bobbie, and James Noronha

quality of their sport participation ( Evans et al., 2018 ; McGarty & Melville, 2018 ). In particular, youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) who have impairments in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior ( American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

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Combined Virtual-Reality- and Gym-Based Physical Activity Intervention for Children With a Developmental Disability: Effects on Physical Activity Levels, Motor Skills, and Social Skills

Hoo Kyung Lee and Jooyeon Jin

Regular physical activity (PA) is of paramount importance for children with a developmental disability (DD), including those with intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Extensive empirical evidence substantiates that consistent engagement in PA not only affords children

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Impact of an Online Rater Training on Scoring Accuracy of Two Skills on the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 Among Children With Developmental Disabilities: A Pilot Study

Hyokju Maeng, Deborah R. Shapiro, Elizabeth Kipling Webster, and Hyunjin Kwon

and physical activity. Children with developmental disabilities (DD), inclusive of those with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities (ID), tend to be significantly delayed in their FMS compared with peers without disabilities ( Rintala & Loovis, 2013 ; Staples & Reid, 2010

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Relations of Early Motor Skills on Age and Socialization, Communication, and Daily Living in Young Children With Developmental Disabilities

Megan MacDonald, Samantha Ross, Laura Lee McIntyre, and Amanda Tepfer

Young children with developmental disabilities experience known deficits in salient child behaviors, such as social behaviors, communication, and aspects of daily living, behaviors that generally improve with chronological age. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of motor skills on relations of age and salient child behaviors in a group of young children with developmental disabilities, thus tapping into the potential influences of motor skills in the development of salient child behaviors. One hundred thirteen young children with developmental disabilities participated in this study. Independent mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator between the mediating and outcome variable, indicated that motor skills meditated relations between age and socialization, communication, and daily living skills in young male children with developmental disabilities, but not female participants. Findings suggest motor skill content needs to be considered in combination with other child behaviors commonly focused on in early intervention.

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Exploring the Meaning of Parental Involvement in Physical Education for Students With Developmental Disabilities

Jihoun An and Samuel R. Hodge

The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to explore the experiences and meaning of parental involvement in physical education from the perspectives of the parents of students with developmental disabilities. The stories of four mothers of elementary aged children (3 boys, 1 girl), two mothers and one couple (mother and father) of secondary-aged youth (1 girl, 2 boys) with developmental disabilities, were gathered by using interviews, photographs, school documents, and the researcher’s journal. Bronfenbrenner’s (2005) ecological system theory provided a conceptual framework to interpret the findings of this inquiry. Three themes emerged from thematic analysis: being an advocate for my child, understanding the big picture, and collaborative partnerships undeveloped in GPE. The findings lend additional support to the need for establishing collaborative partnerships in physical education between home and school environments (An & Goodwin, 2007; Tekin, 2011).

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Determining Daily Physical Activity Levels of Youth with Developmental Disabilities: Days of Monitoring Required?

So-Yeun Kim and Joonkoo Yun

This study examined sources of variability in physical activity (PA) of youth with developmental disabilities (DD), and determined the optimal number of days required for monitoring PA. Sixteen youth with DD wore two pedometers and two accelerometers for 9 days, including 5 weekdays (W) and 2 weekends (WK). A two-facet in fully crossed two-way ANOVAs were employed to estimate sources of variability across W, WK, and W and WK combined (WWK) for each device. Primary sources of variability were the person and the person by day interaction for both devices. Using a pedometer, four, six, and eight days of measurements were required to determine typical PA levels of the participants during W, WK, and WWK, respectively. Using one accelerometer, four days of measurements were estimated across all days.

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Behavioral Coaching of Track Athletes With Developmental Disabilities: Evaluation of Sprint Performance During Training and Special Olympics Competition

James K. Luiselli, Neelima G. Duncan, Patrick Keary, Elizabeth Godbold Nelson, Rebecca E. Parenteau, and Kathryn E. Woods

We evaluated several behavioral coaching procedures with two young adults who had intellectual and developmental disabilities and were preparing for a Special Olympics track event. The primary dependent measure was their time running a 100 m sprint. Following a baseline phase, the athletes were coached to improve sprint times through different combinations of goal setting, performance feedback, positive reinforcement, and video modeling. In a sequential design, the average sprint time of both athletes was lower during intervention conditions compared with baseline. Following intervention, they ran faster than their baseline average in competition at a regional Special Olympics event. We discuss intervention and research issues in behavioral coaching of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

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Rhythm and Reaching: The Influence of Rhythmic Auditory Cueing in a Goal-Directed Reaching Task With Adults Diagnosed With Cerebral Palsy

Jacqueline C. Ladwig, Tamires C. do Prado, Stephanie J. Tomy, Jonathan J. Marotta, and Cheryl M. Glazebrook

. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31 ( 5 ), 1076 – 1082 . PubMed ID: 20434308 doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2010.04.001 Liptak , G.S. ( 2008 ). Health and well being of adaults with cerebral palsy . Current Opinion in Neurology, 21, 136 – 142 . PubMed ID: 18317270 doi:10.1097/WCO.0b013e3282f6a499

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COVID-19 Pandemic and Individuals With Intellectual Disability: Special Olympics as an Example of Organizational Responses and Challenges

Viviene A. Temple

large national survey of U.S. direct support professionals ( n  = 5,356) working with people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The proportion of respondents working with and supporting people with intellectual and developmental disabilities and COVID-19 was significantly lower in family