findings ( Giusti et al., 2020 ). In light of the need for theoretically informed and meaningful developmental comparison of burnout factors, we adopted the developmental model of sport participation (DMSP; Fraser-Thomas, Cote, & Deakin, 2005 ) to examine athlete burnout in this study. The DMSP posits
Tsz Lun (Alan) Chu, Bailey Sommerfeld, and Tao Zhang
Paul R. Ford and A. Mark Williams
The developmental model of sport participation (DMSP) was proposed by Côté (1999). First, we examined whether the participation profiles of two groups of professional soccer players in Ireland who either had or had not played Gaelic football to an elite level in adolescence provided support for this model. Both groups commenced participation in soccer around 6 years of age and on average participated in two other sports between 6 and 18 years of age, excluding soccer and Gaelic football. A reduction in the number of other sports and an increase in hours devoted to the primary sport were observed between 6 and 18 years of age, as per the predictions of the DMSP. Second, we examined whether players who demonstrated early diversification required fewer soccer-specific hours to achieve expert performance in that sport compared with players who demonstrated less diversification or did not participate in Gaelic football. No significant relationships or differences were reported, which did not provide support for the DMSP, possibly due to the low sample size employed in this study.
Marty K. Baker, Jeffrey A. Graham, Allison Smith, and Zachary T. Smith
The purpose of this Coaching In paper is to share an overview of how sport-specific free play is incorporated into training and development recommendations for youth football (soccer) in various countries around the world. A review of 11 countries’ training programs was conducted, in which specific instances of training recommendations were examined to identify similarities and differences among nations. Results of our review suggest that not all of the programs emphasized children having fun, enjoying the game of football, or engaging in free play. For example, the program from England strongly emphasized outcome related abilities more than enjoyment or play related features of training. In contrast, the Italian, Canadian, and Australian documents discussed that allowing youth to play freely engaged children, ensured they were having fun, and encouraged a fascination with football. Programs recommending developmental games or free play often suggested the use of purposeful gameplay that resembled traditional competition or match-specific situations. Examining development recommendations across nations provides important insight into how youth sport development efforts are shaped around the world, especially as youth sport coaches seek to enhance youth engagement, while simultaneously helping youth improve their skills.
David I. Anderson and Anthony M. Mayo
This paper examines the costs and benefits of early specialization in sport from a skill acquisition perspective. The focus is on whether early specialization in a single sport is the best way to facilitate the acquisition of skill in that sport. The paper is organized relative to the two major conceptual frameworks that have motivated much of the discussion about early specialization in sport: the theory of deliberate practice and the Developmental Model of Sport Participation. Our analysis reveals that while early specialization in sport is one way to reach elite status, it is not the only way. Considerable evidence shows that many elite athletes specialized in their sport late, following diversified experiences with other sports. These findings raise a number of exciting questions about the long-term development of skill in sport.
Jacqueline D. Goodway and Leah E. Robinson
This commentary examines the argument for early sport specialization versus sport sampling from a physical growth and motor development perspective. Three developmental frameworks are examined (Mountain of Motor Development, Developmental Model of Sport Participation, Spirals of Engagement Trajectory model) to make the case that a broad base of fundamental motor skill competence is necessary in the early years before sport specialization in the adolescent years. Early sport specialization is criticized from the standpoint of increased risk for overuse injury, concerns about long-term growth, and the fact that early and intense practice schedules often do not differentiate elite versus nonelite athletes. A strong argument is made for early sport sampling to acquire a broad base of fundamental motor skills to apply to different sports, and to allow physical maturity to develop before specializing in sport. Such an approach also better equips a child to be active across the lifespan.
Darda Sales and Laura Misener
stages of development in several athlete development frameworks (e.g., LTAD and Developmental Model of Sport Participation). Due to social, physical, attitudinal, and architectural constraints in accessing community physical activity opportunities ( Kehn & Kroll, 2009 ; Rimmer, 2005 ; Wiart et al
Heather K. Larson, Bradley W. Young, Tara-Leigh F. McHugh, and Wendy M. Rodgers
explored relationships between ES and psychological or behavioral outcomes, most are grounded in the Developmental Model of Sport Participation (DMSP; Côté, Baker, & Abernethy, 2003 ; Côté & Fraser-Thomas, 2007 ). The DMSP contrasts two types of early sport involvement, sampling and specialization, that
Amanda J. Visek, Heather Mannix, Avinash Chandran, Sean D. Cleary, Karen A. McDonnell, and Loretta DiPietro
& Gaillard, 1991 ; Fraser-Thomas, Cote, & Deakin, 2008 ; Mork Armentrout & Kamphoff, 2011 ). Popular models providing guiding frameworks from sport sampling, to specialization, to life-long physical activity, such as the developmental model of sport participation (DMSP; Côté, Baker, & Abernethy, 2007
Jennifer T. Coletti, Veronica Allan, and Luc J. Martin
be prioritized at the expense of enjoyment with peers. Only one book incorporated ideas of sampling (i.e., trying a variety of sports)—a key feature of the Developmental Model of Sport Participation—into the storyline. In Sports Day , the main character Emmie believes she has no sporting abilities
Martin K. Erikstad, Bjørn Tore Johansen, Marius Johnsen, Tommy Haugen, and Jean Côté
). Côté et al. ( 2007 ) developed the Developmental Model of Sport Participation (DMSP) to describe two main developmental pathways that lead to various developmental outcomes: (a) the early specialization pathway, characterized by large amounts of deliberate forms of practice from an early age, and (b