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Matthew Sitch and Melissa Day

Making weight refers to the process of reducing body weight to compete in weight-categorized sports. The current study explored judo athletes’ psychological experiences of making weight. Six international standard judo athletes participated for the length of time they required to make weight. An unstructured diary was used to collect data daily, supported by a follow-up interview. Data were analyzed using a holistic content analysis. Emergent themes included initiating the making weight process, competing demands of dual roles, temptation, impacts of restricted nutrition, and the desire for social support. Athlete stories provided rich descriptions of their experiences, revealing the extent to which difficulties were concealed and the process of making weight was normalized. Their accounts highlight the challenges associated with social support but the value of emotional disclosure. Future research should explore the potential uses of diaries as a form of disclosure.

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Yoshimi Fukuoka, Emiko Kamitani, Kathleen Dracup, and So Son Jong

Objectives:

The purposes of this study were 1) to determine compliance with a pedometer and mobile phone-based physical activity diary, and 2) to assess concordance between self-reported daily steps recorded and transmitted by a mobile phone and pedometer-measured daily steps in sedentary women.

Methods:

In this 3-week pilot clinical study, 41 sedentary women who met all inclusion criteria were recruited from local communities. We asked the participants to wear a pedometer every day and to report their daily steps using a mobile phone diary each night before retiring. In the first week, women were asked to monitor their daily steps (baseline steps). In the second and third weeks, they were asked to increase their steps by 20% from the previous week. Although the pedometer can automatically store the most recent 41 days’ performance, the participants were not informed of this function of the pedometer.

Results:

Overall compliance was 93.8% with pedometer use and 88.3% with the mobile phone physical activity diary. Bland Altman plots showed that the agreement between self-reported daily steps by mobile phone diary and pedometer-recorded daily steps from week 1 to week 3 was high.

Conclusion:

The combination of a pedometer and a mobile phone diary may enhance the quality of self-reported data in clinical studies.

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Samantha F. Ehrlich, Amanda J. Casteel, Scott E. Crouter, Paul R. Hibbing, Monique M. Hedderson, Susan D. Brown, Maren Galarce, Dawn P. Coe, David R. Bassett, and Assiamira Ferrara

. Calculation of the amount of time spent in activity of various intensities is then limited to periods of device wear. Historically, diaries have been used to assess wear time; participants record on/off times, and the logs also serve as a reminder to wear the device ( Lee & Shiroma, 2014 ). More recently

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Elif Inan-Eroglu, Bo-Huei Huang, Leah Shepherd, Natalie Pearson, Annemarie Koster, Peter Palm, Peter A. Cistulli, Mark Hamer, and Emmanuel Stamatakis

monitoring, and large resource demands due to its specialized equipment ( Van de Water, Holmes, & Hurley, 2011 ). Diaries are common low-cost/low-tech alternatives for sleep monitoring in population research. However, diary-based methods could be burdensome for participants and subject to recall bias

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Andrea J. Braakhuis, Will G. Hopkins, Timothy E. Lowe, and Elaine C. Rush

A quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to determine antioxidant intake in athletes. The questionnaire will be valuable for researchers wishing to standardize antioxidant intake or simply document habitual intake during an intervention trial. One hundred thirteen athletes participated in the validity study, of whom 96 completed the questionnaire and blood test, 81 completed the 7-d food diary and questionnaire, and 63 completed the 7-d food diary and blood test. Validity was investigated by comparing total and food-group antioxidant intakes from the questionnaire with those from a subsequent 7-d food diary. Measures of construct validity were determined by comparing a biomarker of antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing ability of plasma) in a blood sample with antioxidant intakes from the questionnaire and diary. The correlation between the diary and questionnaire energy-adjusted estimates of total antioxidant intake was modest (.38; 90% confidence limits, ± .14); the correlation was highest for antioxidants from cereals (.55; ± .11), which contributed the greatest proportion (31%) of the total antioxidant intake. Correlations were also high for coffee and tea (.51; ± .15) and moderate for vegetables (.34; ± .16) and fruit (.31; ± .16). The correlation of the plasma biomarker with the questionnaire estimate was small (.28; ± .15), but the correlation with the diary estimate was inconsequential (–.03; ± .15). One-week test–retest reliability of the questionnaire’s estimates of antioxidant intake in 20 participants was high (.83; ± .16). In conclusion, the FFQ is less labor intensive for participants and researchers than a 7-d diary and appears to be at least as trustworthy for estimating antioxidant intake.

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Fleur Pawsey, Jennifer Hoi Ki Wong, Göran Kenttä, and Katharina Näswall

, daytime mindfulness is positively related to mood and energy ratings the following day via the mechanisms of (a) reduced evening rumination and (b) improved sleep quality. The purpose of the current research was to test the two hypotheses, and we did this by using a diary design, with participants

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Lena Busch, Till Utesch, Paul-Christian Bürkner, and Bernd Strauss

awareness. Methods Trial Design In this randomly controlled trial (RCT) study, two randomized experimental groups were implemented. Participants tracked their physical activity via a wearable fitness app device and a daily diary questionnaire. Participants allocated to the experimental target (ET) group had

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Corneel Vandelanotte, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Renaat Philippaerts, Michael Sjöström, and James Sallis

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of a newly developed computerized Dutch version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).

Methods:

Subjects (N = 53) completed the computerized IPAQ at three specified times. Subjects wore a CSA activity monitor during seven full days and simultaneously completed a 7-d physical activity diary. Finally, respondents filled out a paper and pencil IPAQ.

Results:

Intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.60 to 0.83. Correlations for “total physical activity” between the computerized IPAQ and the CSA activity counts were moderate (min: r = 0.38; kcal: r = 0.43). Correlations with the physical activity diary were also moderate (min: r = 0.39; kcal: r = 0.46). Correlations between the computerized and the paper and pencil IPAQ were high (min: r = 0.80; kcal: r = 0.84).

Conclusions:

The computerized Dutch IPAQ is a reliable and reasonably valid physical activity measurement tool for the general adult population.

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Louise C. Mâsse, Janet E. Fulton, Kathleen B. Watson, Susan Tortolero, Harold W. Kohl III, Michael C. Meyers, Steven N. Blair, and William W. Wong

Background:

The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of 2 physical activity questionnaire formats—one that lists activities (Checklist questionnaire) and one that assesses overall activities (Global questionnaire) by domain.

Methods:

Two questionnaire formats were validated among 260 African-American and Hispanic women (age 40–70) using 3 validation standards: 1) accelerometers to validate activities of ambulation; 2) diaries to validate physical activity domains (occupation, household, exercise, yard, family, volunteer/church work, and transportation); and 3) doubly-labeled water to validate physical activity energy expenditure (DLW-PAEE).

Results:

The proportion of total variance explained by the Checklist questionnaire was 38.4% with diaries, 9.0% with accelerometers, and 6.4% with DLW-PAEE. The Global questionnaire explained 17.6% of the total variance with diaries and about 5% with both accelerometers and with DLW-PAEE. Overall, associations with the 3 validation standards were slightly better with the Checklist questionnaire. However, agreement with DLW-PAEE was poor with both formats and the Checklist format resulted in greater overestimation. Validity results also indicated the Checklist format was better suited to recall household, family, and transportation activities.

Conclusions:

Overall, the Checklist format had slightly better measurement properties than the Global format. Both questionnaire formats are better suited to rank individuals.

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Matthew Pearce, David H. Saunders, Peter Allison, and Anthony P. Turner

resolution, but fail to capture contextual detail, whereas self-report diaries permit detailed descriptions of physical activity but are cognitively demanding and burdensome for the participant. 16 These difficulties are exacerbated in unstructured activities, which are typically sporadic and unmemorable