. 21 – 24 However, the number of school-based studies aimed to develop nutrition and physical activity in Turkey is limited. 25 – 26 The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the “Diet and Physical Activity Program for Health” (DAPAPH), prepared in accordance with the CATCH program
Ayse Meydanlioglu and Ayse Ergun
Guilherme Assuncao Ferreira, Raul Osiecki, Adriano Eduardo Lima-Silva, Michel Cardoso de Angelis-Pereira, and Fernando Roberto De-Oliveira
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a reduced-carbohydrate (reduced-CHO) diet on the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) curve during an incremental test. Nine physically active men performed a progressive incremental test on a cycle ergometer (25 W·2 min−1) after 72 hr on either a control diet (60% CHO) or a reduced-CHO diet (30% CHO). Lactate and RPE thresholds were identified using the Dmax method (DmaxLa and DmaxRPE, respectively). Power output, heart rate and RPE scores in DmaxLa and DmaxRPE were similar between the diets and were not different from each other, regardless of the diet. Lactate values were consistently higher (p < .05) in the control diet compared with the reduced-CHO diet during power output after the lactate breakpoint; however, they were not accompanied by a proportional increase in RPE scores. These results suggest that DmaxRPE and DmaxLa are not dissociated after a short-period reduced-CHO diet, whereas the lactate values after the lactate threshold are reduced with a reduced-CHO diet, although they are not accompanied by alterations in RPE.
Simone Dohle, Brian Wansink, and Lorena Zehnder
The goal of this qualitative study is to identify common beliefs and behaviors related to exercise and diet.
Data were collected in focus group discussions with regular exercisers who were physically active between 1 and 5 h per week. Exercise objectives, beliefs and behaviors regarding food intake before, during, and after exercise, consumption of sport supplements, and dietary patterns on sedentary days were explored. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach.
Participants reported that they reward themselves for being active by consuming food. Other exercisers had specific beliefs about dietary needs and how to compensate for exercise-induced losses along with exercise-related food likes and dislikes. The participants’ food intake also depended on their personal exercise objectives, such as the goal of performing well in competitions. External and physiological factors also played a role in determining participants’ dietary patterns.
Results of this study show that exercising and dietary patterns are closely intertwined. In addition, we articulate new hypotheses and outline a research agenda that can help improve how regular exercisers eat.
Satya S. Jonnalagadda, Paula J. Ziegler, and Judy A. Nelson
The objectives of this study were to determine food preferences, body image perceptions, dieting behaviors, and nutrient intakes of elite male and female figure skaters. Male (n = 23) and female (n = 26) figure skaters completed a food preference checklist, a questionnaire examining their demographics, dieting behaviors and body image perceptions, and 3-d food records. Male skaters had a higher preference (score ≥ 6) for grains, fruit, meat, dairy, fats, and sweets. Female skaters had higher preference for grains and fruits. Of the female skaters, 30% considered themselves overweight and indicated a preference for a thinner body contour. Both male and female skaters expressed a preference for leaner body contours for members of the opposite gender. Total energy intake, total fat (females) and dietary fiber were below the dietary recommendations. Vitamin E, vitamin D, folate (females), pantothenic acid (females), calcium (females), magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus (females) were less than two-thirds of the dietary recommendations. Macronutrient intake of male skaters was associated with preferences for the grain group, although no association was observed among female skaters. Results suggest that these behaviors and attitudes need to be assessed and addressed among figure skaters, given their impact on dietary intakes and overall well-being.
Jozef Langfort, Ryszard Zarzeczny, Krystyna Nazar, and Hanna Kaciuba-Uscilko
The purpose of this study was to discover whether severe dietary carbohydrate (CHO) restriction modifies the relationship between exercise intensity and hormonal responses to exercise. Changes in the plasma adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA), growth hormone (hGH), testosterone (T), and blood lactate (LA) during an incremental exercise performed until volitional exhaustion were determined in 8 physically active volunteers after 3 days on low CHO (<5% of energy content; L-CHO) and isocaloric mixed (M) diets. Following L-CHO diet, the basal plasma A, NA, and hGH concentrations were increased, whilst T and LA levels were decreased. During exercise all the hormones increased exponentially, with thresholds close to that of LA. Neither the magnitude nor the pattern of the hormonal changes were affected by L-CHO diet except the NA threshold, which was lowered. Blood LA response to exercise was diminished and LA threshold was shifted towards higher loads by L-CHO diet. It is concluded that restriction of CHO intake (a) does not affect the pattern of changes in plasma A, hGH, and T concentrations during graded exercise but lowers NA threshold, indicating increased sensitivity of the sympathetic nervous system to exercise stimulus; (b) alters the basal and exercise levels of circulating hormones, which may have an impact on the balance between anabolic and catabolic processes and subsequently influence the effectiveness of training.
Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings, and D. Enette Larson-Meyer
A variety of special diets are adopted by track-and-field athletes for a multitude of reasons. Gluten-free (GFD), vegetarian, and fasting diets are among the more prevalent diets adopted for health, ethical, religious, and performance purposes. A low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides
Ahmed Ismaeel, Suzy Weems, and Darryn S. Willoughby
Competitive bodybuilding is unique in that participants are judged by appearance rather than performance. Through rigorous diet and training practices, a bodybuilder aims to achieve not only a muscular physique, but one that is also symmetrical and well proportioned ( Heyward et al., 1989 ). To
Alaaddine El-Chab, Charlie Simpson, and Helen Lightowler
( Bishop et al., 2001 ; Black et al., 2005 ; Desbrow et al., 2012 ; Walsh et al., 2006 ). Studies with a crossover design require participants to replicate their diet prior to every subsequent trial using a dietary standardization technique such as standardized diet (solid prepackaged diet [Sdiet]), 24
Giovanna Ghiani, Sara Magnani, Azzurra Doneddu, Gianmarco Sainas, Virginia Pinna, Marco Caboi, Girolamo Palazzolo, Filippo Tocco, and Antonio Crisafulli
in terms of calories and macronutrients. The questionnaire consisted of 16 printed forms and 16 pages with colored photos of the most common foods and courses in the Italian diet. We also estimated his daily nutritional expenditure on the basis of the data collected by a wearable device (Armband Fit
Oliver R. Barley, Dale W. Chapman, and Chris R. Abbiss
when compared with MMA. e P < .05 when compared with MT/K. f P < .05 when compared with TKD. g P < .05 when compared with wrestling. Gradual dieting, restricting fluid ingestion, and increased exercise were among the most common methods of weight loss in all the combat sports (Table 5