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Amelia Ferro, Guadalupe Garrido, Jorge Villacieros, Javier Pérez, and Lena Grams

Physical condition and an optimized diet are relevant to enhance performance and recovery. The diet composition and meal frequency of eleven elite wheelchair basketball players were estimated using a 3-day food-weighing diary in two months during the precompetitive-period. Performance was determined through a 20 m sprint test. The players consumed 4.2 ± 0.8 meals/day in May and 4.5 ± 0.9 meals/day in June, resulting in total energy intakes of 2492 ± 362 kcal/d and 2470 ± 497 kcal/d, respectively. The macronutrient distribution was 3.8 ± 1.3 g/kg carbohydrates, 1.7 ± 0.6 g/kg protein, and 36 ± 5% of energy derived from fat in May, and 4.2 ± 1.9 g/kg carbohydrates, 1.5 ± 0.5 g/kg protein and 32 ± 5% of energy derived from fat in June. The maximum velocity of the sprint test improved from 4.77 ± 0.31 m/s in May to 5.19 ± 0.23 m/s in June. Our results revealed carbohydrate intake below and fat intake above recommendations, but improvements of dietary patterns. Further nutritional advice is necessary to ensure health and performance improvements.

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Roger G. Bounds, Steven E. Martin, Peter W. Grandjean, Barbara C. O’Brien, Cindi Inman, and Stephen F. Crouse

To test the effect of diet on the short-term lipid response to exercise, fourteen moderately trained (VO2max: 50.2 ± 6.7 ml/kg/min), healthy men (mean age: 28 ± 4 years) were alternately fed a high fat (60±6.7% fat) and a high carbohydrate (63 ± 3.2% carbohydrate) isoenergetic diet for 2 weeks in a randomized crossover design. During the last 4 days of the treatments, fasting total cholesterol, triglyceride. HDL-cholesterol, and HDL 3 -cholesterol were measured the day before, and again immediately, 24 hr. and 48 hr after exercise (4190 kJ, 70% VO 2max ). LDL-cholesterol and HDL 2 -cholesterol were calculated. Lipid concentrations were adjusted for plasma volume changes after exercise. A 2 (diet) × 4 (time) ANOVA with repeated measures revealed no significant interaction between the diet and exercise treatments. Furthermore, diet alone did not influence lipid concentrations in these trained men. Exercise resulted in an increase in HDL-C (10.7%) and HDL 3 -C (8.5%) concentrations and a concomitant fall in triglyceride (-25%) and total cholesterol (-3.5%). Thus, we conclude that diet composition does not affect the short-term changes in blood lipids and lipoproteins that accompany a single session of aerobic exercise in moderately trained men.

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Catherine Applegate, Mackenzie Mueller, and Krystle E. Zuniga

Diet composition can affect systemic pH and acid-base regulation, which may in turn influence exercise performance. An acidic environment in the muscle impairs performance and contributes to fatigue; therefore, current trends in sports nutrition place importance on maximizing the alkalinity of the body with ergogenic aids and dietary strategies. This review examines the evidence on the effects of dietary manipulations on acid load and exercise performance. Ten studies that investigated the effect of high versus low dietary acid loads on athletic performance generally identified that low dietary acid loads increased plasma pH, but did not consistently improve exercise performance at maximal or submaximal exercise intensities. In addition, the few studies conducted have several limitations including lack of female subjects and use of exercise tests exclusive to cycling or treadmill running. Although the research does not strongly support a performance benefit from low dietary acid loads, a more alkaline dietary pattern may be beneficial for overall health, as dietary induced acidosis has been associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and bone disease. The review includes dietary recommendations for athletes to reduce dietary acid load while still meeting sports nutrition recommendations.

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Christopher C. Webster, Jeroen Swart, Timothy D. Noakes, and James A. Smith

. Results Diet and Training The athlete remained weight stable throughout the study period (80–81 kg). He reported that his diet composition had been consistent for the past 2 years, but total caloric intake varied based on training load. Total caloric intake during the study was ∼3700 kcal/d during both

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M. Greenhall, R.S. Taipale, J.K. Ihalainen, and A.C. Hackney

. 1994 ; 11 ( 4 ): 241 – 248 . 33642675 10. Wenz M , Berend JZ , Lynch N , Chapell S , Hackney AC . Substrate oxidation at rest and during exercise: effects of menstrual cycle phase and diet composition . J Physiol Pharmacol . 1997 ; 48 ( 4 ): 852 – 860 .

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Josh W. Newbury, Bryan Saunders, and Lewis A. Gough

often produces equivocal performance outcomes ( Guest et al., 2021 ). The reasons that null effects are commonly observed is typically through differing study methodologies combined with small sample sizes, with factors such as diet composition ( Abuhelwa et al., 2017 ), CAF source ( Wickham & Spriet

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Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems, Mehmet Akif Şahin, and Matthew David Cook

. Journal of Chromatography A, 1011 ( 1–2 ), 173 – 180 . PubMed ID: 14518774 doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(03)01133-6 Wenz , M. , Berend , J.Z. , Lynch , N.A. , Chappell , S. , & Hackney , A.C. ( 1997 ). Substrate oxidation at rest and during exercise: Effects of menstrual cycle phase and diet

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Bill I. Campbell, Danielle Aguilar, Laurin Conlin, Andres Vargas, Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Amey Corson, Chris Gai, Shiva Best, Elfego Galvan, and Kaylee Couvillion

their histograms, normal Q–Q plots, and box plots showed that data were normally distributed. There were no differences in any dietary intake variable between the two groups at baseline. Macronutrient intake and diet composition are summarized in Table  1 . Body composition, maximal strength, and RMR

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Hani Kopetschny, David Rowlands, David Popovich, and Jasmine Thomson

. , Hughes , D. , Johnstone , A. , Whybrow , S. , Horgan , G. , King , N. , & Blundell , J. ( 2004 ). Rate and extent of compensatory changes in energy intake and expenditure in response to altered exercise and diet composition in humans . European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 286 ( 2 ), R

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Fernando Naclerio, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Mar Larrosa, Aitor Centeno, Jonathan Esteve-Lanao, and Diego Moreno-Pérez

baseline, all of the analyzed variables were not significantly different between groups. Table  2 shows the dietary monitoring results, determined before and after the intervention. Table 2 Descriptive Analysis of the Participants Diet Composition CHO + PRO ( n  = 12) CHO ( n  = 13) Treatment Pre Post Pre