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The Influence of Habitual Exercise Training and Meal Form on Diet-Induced Thermogenesis in College-Age Men

Lance Ratcliff, Sareen S. Gropper, B. Douglas White, David M. Shannon, and Kevin W. Huggins

This study compared type of habitual exercise and meal form on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) in 29 men age 19–28 yr. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and DIT response to solid-meal (bar) vs. liquid-meal (shake) ingestion were measured via indirect calorimetry; classifications were sedentary (n = 9), endurance trained (n = 11), or resistance trained (n = 9). Height, weight, and body composition (using bioelectrical impedance) were measured for each subject. Energy expenditure was determined before and every 30 min after meal consumption for 210 min. RMR was significantly (p = .045) higher in the endurance- and resistance-trained groups. However, when expressed per kilogram fat-free mass (FFM; relative RMR), differences were not significant. Both DIT (kcal/min) and relative DIT (kcal · min−1 · kg FFM−1) significantly increased with time (p < .0001) from RMR for each meal form. There was no significant exercise-group effect on DIT or relative DIT. There was a significant (p = .012) effect of meal form on DIT; shakes elicited a higher DIT. This significant difference was not found for relative DIT. There was a significant interaction between group and meal form for DIT (p = .008) and relative DIT (p < .0001). Shakes elicited a significantly greater DIT (p = .0002) and relative DIT (p = .0001) in the resistance-trained group. In the sedentary group, relative DIT from shakes was significantly lower than from bars (p = .019). In conclusion, habitual exercise appears to increase RMR, and meal form may impart changes in relative DIT depending on exercise status.

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The Effect of Resistance Exercise on the Thermic Effect of Food

Charlene M. Denzer and John C. Young


The thermic effect of food (TEF) is the increment in energy expenditure above resting metabolic rate associated with the cost of absorption and processing of food for storage. Previous studies have shown that TEF is enhanced by aerobic endurance exercise of sufficient duration and intensity. The purpose of this study was to determine if a similar effect occurs with a single bout of resistance exercise (weightlifting).


VO2 was measured in 9 healthy volunteers (3 males and 6 females) for 2 hours after ingestion of a 2760 kJ (660 kcal) carbohydrate meal with and without prior completion of a resistance training regimen (2 sets of 10 repetitions of 10 different exercises).


The meal caused an immediate and persistent thermic effect in both the control and the exercise trial. Mean oxygen consumption over baseline increased 20% in the control trial and 34% in the exercise trial. TEF calculated from VO2 and RER (total area under the response curve above baseline) was 73% greater in the exercise trial compared with the control trial (159 ± 18 vs. 92 ± 14 KJ/2 hrs, p < .02).


These results indicate that TEF in response to a carbohydrate meal is enhanced following a single bout of resistance exercise.

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Thermic and Glycemic Responses to Bread and Pasta Meals with and Without Prior Low-Intensity Exercise

Penelope M. Warwick

The purpose of the study was to investigate thermic and glycemic responses to conventional meals with and without prior low-intensity exercise. Fourteen healthy volunteers (7 men, 7 women) undertook 4 treatments, 2 bread and 2 pasta meals, either with (E) or without (NE) prior exercise (a 45-min treadmill walk). Meals provided 58 g carbohydrate and 2360 kJ. Energy expenditure and blood-glucose concentrations were measured before and for 3 h after the meals. The thermic effect of food (TEF) was lower after pasta (121 ± 32 kJ/3 h) than after bread (154 ± 62 kJ/3 h), P = 0.009, but was not affected by exercise. Glycemic responses were lower after E (155 ± 113 mmol·L−1 ·3 h−1) than NE (199 ± 97 mmol·L−1 · 3 h−1) after pasta (P = 0.020) but not after bread. TEF was lower after pasta than bread but was not affected by prior low-intensity exercise. The effects of exercise on glycemic responses to meals were inconsistent.

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Within-Day Energy Deficiency and Metabolic Perturbation in Male Endurance Athletes

Monica Klungland Torstveit, Ida Fahrenholtz, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Øystein Sylta, and Anna Melin

metabolic rate ratio; pRMR = predicted RMR; mRMR = measured RMR; WDEB = within-day energy balance; SMR = sleeping metabolic rate; DIT = diet-induced thermogenesis; NEAT = nonexercise activity thermogenesis; EEE = exercise energy expenditure; EPOC = excess postexercise oxygen consumption; RMR = resting

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Increasing Meal Frequency in Isoenergetic Conditions Does Not Affect Body Composition Change and Appetite During Weight Gain in Japanese Athletes

Motoko Taguchi, Akiko Hara, Hiroko Murata, Suguru Torii, and Takayuki Sako

observed to increase in accordance with protein intake ( Bray et al. 2015 ). Diet-induced thermogenesis after protein intake is higher than that of both fat and carbohydrate ( Tappy, 1996 ), which may have led to an increased energy consumption among the subjects ( Stock, 1999 ), and diet-induced

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Network Harmonization of Physical Activity Variables Through Indirect Validation

Matthew Pearce, Tom R.P. Bishop, Stephen Sharp, Kate Westgate, Michelle Venables, Nicholas J. Wareham, and Søren Brage

, & Murgatroyd, 1988 ). Diet-induced thermogenesis was estimated using macronutrient intake assessed by food frequency questionnaire as previously described ( Brage et al., 2015 ; Jequier, 2002 ). The REE and diet-induced thermogenesis were subtracted from TEE and divided by body mass yielding an estimate of

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Significant Energy Deficit and Suboptimal Sleep During a Junior Academy Tennis Training Camp

James A. Fleming, Liam D. Corr, James Earle, Robert J. Naughton, and Liam D. Harper

.0000000000000852 35. Westerterp KR . Diet induced thermogenesis . Nutr Metab . 2004 ; 1 : 5 . doi:10.1186/1743-7075-1-5 10.1186/1743-7075-1-5 36. Yli-Piipari S . Energy expenditure and dietary intake of female collegiate tennis and soccer players during a competitive season . Kinesiology . 2019 ; 51 ( 1

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Hydration Marker Diagnostic Accuracy to Identify Mild Intracellular and Extracellular Dehydration

Julian A. Owen, Matthew B. Fortes, Saeed Ur Rahman, Mahdi Jibani, Neil P. Walsh, and Samuel J. Oliver

was estimated from anthropometry ( Harris & Benedict, 1918 ) and adjusted by a general daily physical activity and diet-induced thermogenesis factor coefficient of 1.6, which was determined from the activities completed on trials ( Todorovic & Micklewright, 2004 ). Participants were also habituated

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Nutrition and Physical Activity During British Army Officer Cadet Training: Part 1—Energy Balance and Energy Availability

Victoria C. Edwards, Stephen D. Myers, Sophie L. Wardle, Andrew G. Siddall, Steven D. Powell, Sarah Needham-Beck, Sarah S. Kefyalew, Priya A. Singh, Elise R. Orford, Michelle C. Venables, Sarah Jackson, Julie P. Greeves, and Sam D. Blacker

during preseason training . International Journal of Sports Medicine, 26 ( 8 ), 701 – 706 . 10.1055/s-2004-830438 Westerterp , K. ( 2004 ). Diet induced thermogenesis . Nutrition & Metabolism, 1 ( 1 ), 5 . 10

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Protein Supplementation in Addition to Strength Training Programs for Improving Body Composition in Older Adults: What Else Is Left to Know? A Brief Update Review of the Current Evidence

Júlio Benvenutti Bueno de Camargo

College of Nutrition, 36 ( 6 ), 481 – 496 . Westerterp-Plantenga , M.S. , Rolland , V. , Wilson , S.A.J. , & Westerterp , K.R. ( 1999 ). Satiety related to 24 h diet-induced Thermogenesis during high protein/carbohydrate vs high fat diets measured