Dietary assessment in athletes is challenging for several reasons, including the burden and difficulty of accurately reporting all foods and beverages consumed ( Magkos & Yannakoulia, 2003 ), the expense and resources required to undertake dietary analysis and provide athlete feedback ( Braakhuis
Louise Capling, Janelle A. Gifford, Kathryn L. Beck, Victoria M. Flood, Gary J. Slater, Gareth S. Denyer and Helen T. O’Connor
Kim Beals, Katherine A. Perlsweig, John E. Haubenstriker, Mita Lovalekar, Chris P. Beck, Darcie L. Yount, Matthew E. Darnell, Katelyn Allison and Bradley C. Nindl
combining technologies increases the accuracy of the measure ( Davidson et al., 1997 ; Livingstone, 1997 ). Energy intake The Automated Self-Administered 24 (ASA24; National Cancer Institute, 2011 version; Bethesda, MD) dietary assessment tool was used to collect and analyze student’s 24-hr food
Armand E.O. Bettonviel, Naomi Y.J. Brinkmans, Kris Russcher, Floris C. Wardenaar and Oliver C. Witard
The nutritional status of elite soccer players across match, postmatch, training and rest days has not been defined. Recent evidence suggests the pattern of dietary protein intake impacts the daytime turnover of muscle proteins and, as such, influences muscle recovery. We assessed the nutritional status and daytime pattern of protein intake in senior professional and elite youth soccer players and compared findings against published recommendations. Fourteen senior professional (SP) and 15 youth elite (YP) soccer players from the Dutch premier division completed nutritional assessments using a 24-hr web-based recall method. Recall days consisted of a match, postmatch, rest, and training day. Daily energy intake over the 4-day period was similar between SP (2988 ± 583 kcal/day) and YP (2938 ± 465 kcal/day; p = .800). Carbohydrate intake over the combined 4-day period was lower in SP (4.7 ± 0.7 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) vs. YP (6.0 ± 1.5 g·kg-1 BM·day-1, p = .006) and SP failed to meet recommended carbohydrate intakes on match and training days. Conversely, recommended protein intakes were met for SP (1.9 ± 0.3 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) and YP (1.7 ± 0.4 g·kg-1 BM·day-1), with no differences between groups (p = .286). Accordingly, both groups met or exceeded recommended daily protein intakes on individual match, postmatch, rest and training days. A similar “balanced” daytime pattern of protein intake was observed in SP and YP. To conclude, SP increased protein intake on match and training days to a greater extent than YP, however at the expense of carbohydrate intake. The daytime distribution of protein intake for YP and SP aligned with current recommendations of a balanced protein meal pattern.
Mandy Clark, Debra B. Reed, Stephen F. Crouse and Robert B. Armstrong
Little published data describe the dietary and physiological profiles of intercollegiate female soccer players; therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to report baseline dietary data, anthropometrics, and performance indices of soccer women during rigorous pre-season training (2 sessions/day) and then during the post-competitive season. Members of a NCAA Division I women’s soccer squad completed 3-day diet records, anthropometrics, and physical tests, including VO2peak. Average body mass was 62 kg with 16% body fat, and no significant pre to post differences were observed. Total energy, carbohydrate (CHO), protein, and fat intakes were significantly greater during the pre-sea-son. Pre-season energy intake met the DRI for females with an “active” lifestyle (37 kcal/kg). While CHO intake failed to meet minimum recommendations to promote glycogen repletion (7–10 g/kg), protein and fat intakes were above minimum recommendations. Pre- and post-season intakes of several micronu-trients were marginal (<75% of the DRI) including vitamin E, folate, copper, and magnesium. VO2peak significantly improved from pre- to post-season (42 and 50 ml/kg/min). In this study female soccer players appeared to meet caloric needs during periods of training but failed to meet minimum CHO and micronu-trient recommendations. Foods higher in protein and fat displaced more CHOrich and nutrient-dense foods within athletes’ energy requirements and satiety limits.
Pablo M. García-Rovés, Nicolàs Terrados, Serafina Fernández and Angeles M. Patterson
The dietary intake and eating behavior of a group of professional elite road cyclists during high intensity training and competition was compared. Their eating pattern consisted of several snacks throughout the race or training, a meal eaten no later than 1 hr postexercise, supper, and breakfast. Protein intake showed a significant difference between evaluation times expressed in three ways: per total amount intake, by kg body weight, and percentage of energy supplied. Due to the high energy intake of these cyclists during training and competition (22.9 ± 1.5, 22.4 ± 1.7 MJ, respectively), they presented a high consumption of each macronutrient both in competition and in training. The eating behavior of these athletes was similar during breakfast (possibility to choose from among approximately 25 foods) and supper (set menu), with variation in the energy intake and a similar relative contribution of the different macronutrients. In general, it is possible to consider the professional road cyclists as a homogeneous group with a similar nutrition intake, eating habits, and nutritional needs throughout the more demanding periods of the season. Furthermore, differences found in protein intake between periods could not be explained by differences in the food available in competition and training periods.
D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke
assumptions and possible error in the collection of anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary data that must be considered in the assessment process, and the lack of reference norms specifically for the athlete. D: Dietary Assessment Although dietary assessment is toward the alphabetic end of the A
Rachel Lohman, Amelia Carr and Dominique Condo
through the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour (ASA24) Dietary Assessment Tool ( Subar et al., 2012 ). Players entered the details of all foods, beverages, and supplements ingested within the previous 24 hours (from midnight to midnight), with the assistance of a food and beverage search browser that was
Jordan A. Carlson, J. Aaron Hipp, Jacqueline Kerr, Todd S. Horowitz and David Berrigan
have been developed to apply to diverse study designs and measurement challenges, results have been mixed as to whether they reduce measurement costs or increase validity. To our knowledge, there are no commercially available image analysis tools for dietary assessment. Computer aid has helped
Jeffery Sobal and Leonard F. Marquart
Vitamin/mineral supplements are often used by athletes as ergogenic aids to improve performance. This paper reviews studies of the prevalence, patterns, and explanations for vitamin/mineral supplement use among athletes. Fifty-one studies provided quantitative prevalence data on 10,274 male and female athletes at several levels of athletic participation in over 15 sports. The overall mean prevalence of athletes’ supplement use was 46%. Most studies reported that over half of the athletes used supplements (range 6% to 100%), and the larger investigations found lower prevalence levels. Elite athletes used supplements more than college or high school athletes. Women used supplements more often than men. Varying patterns existed by sport. Athletes appear to use supplements more than the general population, and some take high doses that may lead to nutritional problems. Sport nutritionists should include a vitamin/mineral supplement history as part of their dietary assessment so they can educate athletes about vitamin/mineral supplements and athletic performance.
Valéria Cristina Provenza Paschoal and Olga Maria Silverio Amancio
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the body composition, dietary intake, use of nutritional supplements, and biochemical status of 8 Brazilian male elite swimmers, aged 18–21 years, participants at a national swimming competition. Data from the athletes were obtained through a 4-day food record, a fasting blood sample, and anthropometric measurements. The anthropometric results showed that body composition was compatible with sport category. The dietary assessment showed an adequate ingestion of calories, vitamins, and mineral, with the exception of calcium, for which only half of the sample reached the recommendation. The results also indicated low carbohydrate and high protein and cholesterol intakes. Of the swimmers, 62.5% and 25% consumed synthetic aminoacids and antioxidants supplements, respectively. The biochemical indices of the nutritional status were within normal limits in all swimmers, with the exception of creatine-kinase, which was above the recommended level, indicating muscle degradation probably due to poor carbohydrate intake. In conclusion, the results suggest the importance of nutritional education to promote a balanced intake, provide all nutrients in optimal amounts, inhibit unnecessary ingestion of nutritional supplements, maintain ideal performance, and improve the swimmers’ health status.