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Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall and Louise M. Burke

, and lay practice ( Burke, 2015 ); (b) to describe the process of implementing strict dietary control and monitoring of participant compliance with a nutrition-training intervention; and (c) to consider some of the practical implications of these three sports nutrition philosophies. The outcomes should

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Nikki A. Jeacocke and Louise M. Burke

When testing is undertaken to monitor an athlete’s progress toward competition goals or the effect of an intervention on athletic outcomes, sport scientists should aim to minimize extraneous variables that influence the reliability, sensitivity, or validity of performance measurement. Dietary preparation is known to influence metabolism and exercise performance. Few studies, however, systematically investigate the outcomes of protocols that acutely control or standardize dietary intake in the hours and days before a performance trial. This review discusses the nutrients and dietary components that should be standardized before performance testing and reviews current approaches to achieving this. The replication of habitual diet or dietary practices, using tools such as food diaries or dietary recalls to aid compliance and monitoring, is a common strategy, and the use of education aids to help athletes achieve dietary targets offers a similarly low burden on the researcher. However, examination of dietary intake from real-life examples of these protocols reveals large variability between and within participants. Providing participants with prepackaged diets reduces this variability but can increase the burden on participants, as well as the researcher. Until studies can better quantify the effect of different protocols of dietary standardization on performance testing, sport scientists can only use a crude cost–benefit analysis to choose the protocols they implement. At the least, study reports should provide a more comprehensive description of the dietary-standardization protocols used in the research and the effect of these on the dietary intake of participants during the period of interest.

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Janet Walberg-Rankin, Cynthia Eckstein Edmonds and Frank C. Gwazdauskas

This study assessed nutritional and body weight patterns in 6 female body- builders approximately a month before and after a competition. The women kept dietary and body weight records and two of them also agreed to collect morning urine samples to provide information about their menstrual cycle. All women lost weight before and gained weight after competition. Energy intake was modestly restricted and the subjects consumed a moderate-protein, low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet just prior to competition. Energy intake doubled, and total grams of fat increased approximately tenfold just after competition. Urinary data indicated that the cycle following competition was prolonged, with reduced reproductive hormone concentrations. In summary, the women practiced extreme dietary control while preparing for a competi- tion but followed the event with a higher energy and fat intake. These changes in diet and body weight may contribute to the disturbances previously observed in the menstrual cycle of these athletes.

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Harry E. Routledge, Jill J. Leckey, Matt J. Lee, Andrew Garnham, Stuart Graham, Darren Burgess, Louise M. Burke, Robert M. Erskine, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

external loading during match play was assessed via global positioning system technology. Dietary Controls In the day prior to match play, each player consumed a prescribed CHO loading diet providing CHO, protein, and fat intakes corresponding to 8, 2, and 1 g/kg body mass, respectively, based on

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Claire E. Badenhorst, Katherine E. Black and Wendy J. O’Brien

trials ( Tomczyk et al., 2017 ). Collectively, the aforementioned research has produced equivocal outcomes based on whether dietary interventions were implemented. In instances of regular and strenuous physical activity, where dietary control is implemented to achieve optimal EA for the individual, a

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Adam M. Hyde, Robert G. McMurray, Frank A. Chavoya and Daniela A. Rubin

a crucial component for weight management in addition to dietary control and growth hormone replacement therapy (GHRT) ( 8 ). Interestingly, children with excess body weight have been shown to have increased ventilatory responses during submaximal exercise ( 18 ). Because of the altered regulation

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Matheus Barbalho, Victor S. Coswig, James Steele, James P. Fisher, Jurgen Giessing and Paulo Gentil

evaluation at the midpoint of the intervention. A limitation of the present study was the absence of dietary control. However, the participants were constantly questioned to see if there were any relevant changes in their dietary habits, and no significant changes were reported. Notwithstanding, in addition

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Emily Arentson-Lantz, Elfego Galvan, Adam Wacher, Christopher S. Fry and Douglas Paddon-Jones

plate waste were analyzed using the Nutrition Data System for Research software (version 2006; Nutrition Coordinating Center University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN). Figure 1 —Study timeline. The 3D ambulatory, run-in included baseline testing of dependent measures, activity tracking, and dietary

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Will Abbott, Callum Brashill, Adam Brett and Tom Clifford

? (4) How is your mood today? (5) How stressed do you feel today? Each question was scored between 1 (low) and 5 (high). A sum of scores for the 5 questions was used for data analysis. Dietary Control Unlike in previous studies with cherry juice and exercise recovery, 15 – 17 we did not restrict the

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Alannah K. A. McKay, Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers and Gregory R. Cox

CHO intake between sexes. The athletes completed a directed daily dietary record and ate in a dining hall setting, where all of the meal options were prepared from standardized recipes, allowing for free living with a high degree of dietary control. The athletes were provided with individualized CHO