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Alaaddine El-Chab, Charlie Simpson and Helen Lightowler

( Bishop et al., 2001 ; Black et al., 2005 ; Desbrow et al., 2012 ; Walsh et al., 2006 ). Studies with a crossover design require participants to replicate their diet prior to every subsequent trial using a dietary standardization technique such as standardized diet (solid prepackaged diet [Sdiet]), 24

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Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall and Louise M. Burke

) the LCHF diet investigated in this study, representing an optimized interpretation of this philosophy, provided lower micronutrient density and less food volume/mass than diets based on higher CHO availability. The complexity of undertaking dietary standardization and/or interventions in sports science

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Nikki A. Jeacocke and Louise M. Burke

When testing is undertaken to monitor an athlete’s progress toward competition goals or the effect of an intervention on athletic outcomes, sport scientists should aim to minimize extraneous variables that influence the reliability, sensitivity, or validity of performance measurement. Dietary preparation is known to influence metabolism and exercise performance. Few studies, however, systematically investigate the outcomes of protocols that acutely control or standardize dietary intake in the hours and days before a performance trial. This review discusses the nutrients and dietary components that should be standardized before performance testing and reviews current approaches to achieving this. The replication of habitual diet or dietary practices, using tools such as food diaries or dietary recalls to aid compliance and monitoring, is a common strategy, and the use of education aids to help athletes achieve dietary targets offers a similarly low burden on the researcher. However, examination of dietary intake from real-life examples of these protocols reveals large variability between and within participants. Providing participants with prepackaged diets reduces this variability but can increase the burden on participants, as well as the researcher. Until studies can better quantify the effect of different protocols of dietary standardization on performance testing, sport scientists can only use a crude cost–benefit analysis to choose the protocols they implement. At the least, study reports should provide a more comprehensive description of the dietary-standardization protocols used in the research and the effect of these on the dietary intake of participants during the period of interest.

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Kristin L. Jonvik, Jan-Willem van Dijk, Joan M.G. Senden, Luc J.C. van Loon and Lex B. Verdijk

the intermittent test. The rate of perceived exertion was obtained twice, immediately after termination of both exercise tests. Physical Activity and Dietary Standardization Subjects were instructed to record their dietary intake 30 hr prior to Test Day 1 and to replicate their intake prior to Test

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Gregory R. Cox, Ian C. Dunican and Louise M. Burke

revealed, with nausea peaking (mean: 1.2 ± 0.1) during fluid restriction and bloating peaking (mean: 1.4 ± 0.2) prior to dietary standardization. “Loss of appetite” was not affected by fluid intake or time. Heart Rate and Blood Pressure A main effect of time for “heart rate” ( p  < .0001) was revealed

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James A. Betts, Javier T. Gonzalez, Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Ina Garthe, Lewis J. James, Asker E. Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, David C. Nieman, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Trent Stellingwerff, Luc J.C. van Loon, Clyde Williams, Kathleen Woolf, Ron Maughan and Greg Atkinson

high or low in energy or other nutrients. A more detailed summary of methods to implement and report dietary standardization techniques is provided elsewhere ( Jeacocke & Burke, 2010 ). Variance in the presence and stages of menstrual cycle should be considered where relevant: There are numerous

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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

involvement of these variables is provided in Table  3 , as well as other specific reviews on dietary standardization prior to performance trials ( Jeacocke & Burke, 2010 ), external sources of motivation ( Halperin et al., 2015 ), and the organization of reliable and valid measurements of performance