Dietary supplements encompass a wide range of products, including essential nutrients (vitamins, minerals, proteins, amino acids, etc.), herbals and botanicals, and specific products with potential for maintenance of health and optimisation of performance. The use of dietary supplements is
International Olympic Committee Expert Group on Dietary Supplements in Athletes
Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer
Several dietary supplements, including carbohydrate, caffeine, creatine monohydrate, nitrate, beta-alanine, and sodium bicarbonate, are well-established performance enhancers (see Peeling et al., 2018 ). Additionally, the beneficial effects of protein on the adaptive response to exercise has been
Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen
Dietary supplements are used by athletes at all levels of sport, reflecting the prevalence of their use in the wider society. About half of the adult US population uses some form of dietary supplements ( Bailey et al., 2011 ) and, though there are regional, cultural, and economic differences, a
Wim Derave and Kevin D. Tipton
Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.
Hanan A. Alfawaz, Soundararajan Krishnaswamy, Latifah Al-Faifi, Halima Ali Bin Atta, Mohammad Al-Shayaa, Saad A. Alghanim and Nasser M. Al-Daghri
Dietary supplements are generally believed to enhance athletic performance ( Arensberg et al., 2014 ; Williams, 2004 ) or prevent/reverse pathological diseases ( Rautiainen et al., 2016 ). Dietary supplements include a wide range of substances with some serving as essential nutrients, while others
Ronald J. Maughan
In May 2017, the Medical and Scientific Commission of the International Olympic Committee assembled a panel of experts at their offices in Lausanne, Switzerland, to discuss the role of dietary supplements in the life of the high-performance athlete. Participants were selected because of their
Carl M. Maresh, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Jay R. Hoffman, Daniel R. Hannon, Catherine L. V. Gabaree, Michael F. Bergeron, Michael J. Whittlesey and Michael R. Deschenes
In the present study, the effects of an increased daily dose of a dietary supplement (ATP-E, 0.2 g ·
Gary Slater, Benedict Tan and Kong Chuan Teh
The supplementation practices of elite athletes in Singapore were studied using an anonymous questionnaire. Information was sought on not only the type of supplements used but also dosage, rationale for use, and other factors that might influence supplement use including selected demographic parameters and sources of information relating to supplements. Data was collected from 160 athletes across a spectrum of 30 sports. Use of supplements was widespread, with 77% of respondents acknowledging use of at least 1 product. Respondents ingested a total of 59 different supplements, with each athlete using on average 3.6 ± 0.3 different products. Sports drinks, caffeine, vitamin C, multivitamin/mineral supplements, and essence of chicken were some of the most commonly ingested products, confirming that while vitamin/mineral supplements are popular, sports supplements and traditional/herbal preparations were also well accepted. Respondents preferred to source information pertaining to supplements from “significant others” and other readily accessible sources. A small number of respondents acknowledged the use of International Olympic Committee (IOC) banned or restricted substances, highlighting the need for athletes to consult sports medicine professionals with specialist knowledge of dietary supplements in advance of initiating any supplementation regime.
Jongkyu Kim, Namju Lee, Jangwon Lee, Sung-sook Jung, Sung-ki Kang and Jong-dae Yoon
This research investigated patterns of the use of dietary supplement and doping awareness among high-ranked judoists from 2 countries. Korean (70 men and 31 women) and Japanese (37 men and 34 women) national judo team members were divided into 2 groups (high and low competitive performance levels) according to their international and national rankings. Fifty-nine percent of Korean and 61% of Japanese judoists consumed dietary supplements. Eighty-eight percent of high- and 51% of low-competitive-performance-level Korean judoists consumed dietary supplements. Sixty-eight percent of high- and 57% of low-competitiveperformance- level Japanese judoists consumed dietary supplements. Oriental supplements (34%), vitamins (23%), and protein powder (12%) were the most commonly consumed dietary supplements in Korean judoists. Vitamins (45%), protein powder (33%), and minerals (15%) were the most commonly consumed dietary supplements in Japanese judoists. Thirty-eight percent of judoists from both countries had not received any proper education about antidoping, and 44% of judoists from both countries had not received knowledge of antidoping legislation. There was a significant difference in education about antidoping between high and low competitive-performance levels of Korean judoists (p < .001). Korean judoists received significantly less antidoping education than Japanese judoists (p < .001). The associations for antidoping education and knowledge of antidoping legislation with the use of dietary supplements were 3.46 (95% CI = 1.31–9.12) and 1.63 (95% CI = 0.71–3.76), respectively. Our findings showed that use of dietary supplements in judoists from both countries was increased after experiencing antidoping education.
Angela de Silva, Yasas Samarasinghe, Dhammika Senanayake and Pulani Lanerolle
Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15–35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p < .05). They also consumed fewer products per day (footballers 0.7, others 3.5; p < .05). Popular supplements included multivitamins, vitamin E, calcium, energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential.