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Jennifer Gornall and Rudolph G. Villani

The primary aim was to investigate whether the reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR) and fat free mass (FFM) associated with a short-term very low kilojoule diet (VLKD) is altered by concurrent resistance exercise. Twenty overweight, premenopausal women were pair matched on body surface area and randomly assigned to either diet only (3,400 kJ/day) or diet combined with resistance training. Before and after 4 weeks of treatment, RMR was assessed by indirect calorimetry; total body mass (TBM), FFM, and fat mass (FM) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; total body water (TBW) by bioelectrical impedance; and strength by a weight-lifting test. Both groups had significantly lower TBM, FFM, FM, TBW, absolute RMR, and RMR, with FFM as the covariate, in the posttests than the pretests with no significant differences between groups. It was concluded that 4 weeks of resistance training did not prevent or reduce the decline in FFM and RMR observed with a VLKD.

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Ahmed Ismaeel, Suzy Weems, and Darryn S. Willoughby

Competitive bodybuilding is unique in that participants are judged by appearance rather than performance. Through rigorous diet and training practices, a bodybuilder aims to achieve not only a muscular physique, but one that is also symmetrical and well proportioned ( Heyward et al., 1989 ). To

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Alaaddine El-Chab, Charlie Simpson, and Helen Lightowler

( Bishop et al., 2001 ; Black et al., 2005 ; Desbrow et al., 2012 ; Walsh et al., 2006 ). Studies with a crossover design require participants to replicate their diet prior to every subsequent trial using a dietary standardization technique such as standardized diet (solid prepackaged diet [Sdiet]), 24

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Colleen McConnell, Alyssa McPherson, and Kathleen Woolf

). Proper nutrition may also play an important role in prevention and recovery of marching band injuries. To date, only one study has examined diet quality of marching artists. Sharma et al. ( 2008 ) assessed cardiovascular disease risk factors, including a diet quality questionnaire, among a university

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Susan Campbell Sandri

Dancers exhibit compliance problems in adopting advice from nutrition experts. Examination of the situation reveals an inherent culture clash between dancers and nutrition authorities. Dancers need safe methods of achieving an ultralean physique, but the recommendations of most nutritionists do not fit dancers* requirements. This manuscript is intended to provide the nutrition professional with insight into the dancer's needs and cultural/professional perspective on dieting. Dietary problems/disorders that are common among dancers are reviewed. Both general and specific recommendations are made for advising dancers and for designing their diets.

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Daniel P. Joaquim, Claudia R. Juzwiak, and Ciro Winckler

assesses the quality of food consumed using tools such as quality indexes. In previous decades, several tools for assessing diet quality have been developed based on dietary guidelines to direct food choices or to develop nutritional education activities. Among them, for instance, the Healthy Eating Index

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Ayse Meydanlioglu and Ayse Ergun

. 21 – 24 However, the number of school-based studies aimed to develop nutrition and physical activity in Turkey is limited. 25 – 26 The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the “Diet and Physical Activity Program for Health” (DAPAPH), prepared in accordance with the CATCH program

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Stephen J. Carter, Eric P. Plaisance, Gordon Fisher, Jose R. Fernandez, Barbara A. Gower, and Gary R. Hunter

African American (AA) and European American (EA) women often exhibit differences in hemoglobin (Hb) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], both of which can be altered by calorie restriction leading to weight loss. Given these known differences, it is of clinical interest to examine the potential for race-specific, adverse responses to weight loss. Sixty-four overweight (BMI 27–29.9 kg/m2), premenopausal women consumed a standardized, very-low calorie diet to reduce BMI < 25 kg/m2. Ancestry informative markers provided estimates of African admixture, an objective mean of expressing race. Blood sampling and anthropometric measures were performed at baseline and upon meeting target BMI. At baseline, in the overweight state, Hb (g/dL) (AA, 11.7 ± 0.9 vs. EA, 12.5 ± 0.8; p < .01) and 25(OH)D (nmol/L) (AA, 35.7 ± 12.9 vs. EA, 57.0 ± 20.0; p < .01) were lower in AAs. After weight loss, Hb decreased (AA, -0.5 ± 0.7 vs. EA, -0.4 ± 0.6; p = .48) to a similar extent among races. Conversely, 25(OH)D increased (AA, 43.4 ± 14.0 vs. EA 68.2 ± 24.3; p < .01) though the magnitude of change (Δ) was not different (AA, +7.8 ± 13.5 vs. EA, +11.2 ± 16.7; p = .37) between races. Multiple linear regression revealed a positive association between ΔHb and Δ25(OH)D (r = .386; p < .01) adjusted for African admixture, Δtestosterone, and Δbody fat%. Path analyses revealed a significant indirect effect of Δbody fat% on ΔHb through Δ25(OH)D, β =-0.023, CI [-0.06, -0.004]. Following 15% weight loss, participants with the largest increase in serum 25(OH)D exhibited the smallest decrease in Hb. Future research should clarify the optimal degree of calorie restriction to stimulate weight loss while mitigating the potential risk of anemia associated with dieting efforts.

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Louise Capling, Janelle A. Gifford, Kathryn L. Beck, Victoria M. Flood, Gary J. Slater, Gareth S. Denyer, and Helen T. O’Connor

nutrition interventions. In addition, diet assessment methods have had limited validation in athletes ( Capling et al., 2017 ). Typically, methods suitable for the general population (e.g., food record, 24-hr dietary recall) are applied in a similar manner to athletes despite known athlete-specific issues

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Todd Miller, Stephanie Mull, Alan Albert Aragon, James Krieger, and Brad Jon Schoenfeld

men, and thus are at greater risk of negative complications when muscle proteins are lost during dieting. Several reasons could exist for the lack of effectiveness of RT reported in most weight loss studies ( Donnelly et al., 2009 ). Possible explanations include, but are not limited to, 1) a lack of