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Ted Hayduk and Johan Rewilak

deviate from status-quo business practices ahead of the SME to take advantage of additional demand influxes. Due to these limitations, this article investigates demand and supply-side outcomes of the Beijing Olympics using 1,470 industrial Chinese firms from several Chinese cities. Using a difference-in-difference

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Kathleen B. Watson, Geoffrey Whitfield, Tiffany J. Chen, Eric T. Hyde, and John D. Omura

widened over time (difference in differences analysis), D2 was subtracted from the D1 (Figure  2 ). When the difference between white respondents and members of each racial/ethnic minority group by income level at the first time period was significantly larger than the difference at the second time period

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Richard J. Paulsen

players have longer or shorter time for preparation between games. Using a regression differences-in-differences estimation strategy, this paper finds an inverse relationship between years remaining and performance when players have short rest, but not when they have long rest. A triple

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Ariane Bélanger-Gravel, Lise Gauvin, Daniel Fuller, and Louis Drouin

Background:

Favorable public opinion and support for policies are essential to favor the sustainability of environmental interventions. This study examined public perceptions and support for active living policies associated with implementing a public bicycle share program (PBSP).

Methods:

Two cross-sectional population-based telephone surveys were conducted in 2009 and 2010 among 5011 adults in Montréal, Canada. Difference-in-differences analyses tested the impact of the PBSP on negative perceptions of the impact of the PBSP on the image of the city, road safety, ease of traveling, active transportation, health, and resistance to policies.

Results:

People living closer to docking stations were less likely to have negative perceptions of the effect of the PBSP on the image of the city (OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4−0.8) and to be resistant to policies (OR = 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6−1.0). The likelihood of perceiving negative effects on road safety increased across time (OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2−1.8). Significant interactions were observed for perceptions of ease of traveling (OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4−0.8), active transportation (OR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4−1.0), and health (OR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4−0.8): likelihood of negative perceptions decreased across time among people exposed.

Conclusion:

Findings indicate that negative perceptions were more likely to abate among those living closer to the PBSP.

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Rachael C. Gliottoni and Robert W. Motl

This experiment examined the effect of a moderate dose of caffeine on perceptions of leg-muscle pain during a bout of high-intensity cycling exercise and the role of anxiety sensitivity in the hypoalgesic effect of caffeine on muscle pain during exercise. Sixteen college-age women ingested caffeine (5 mg/kg body weight) or a placebo and 1 hr later completed 30 min of cycling on an ergometer at 80% of peak aerobic capacity. The conditions were completed in a counterbalanced order, and perceptions of leg-muscle pain were recorded during the bouts of exercise. Caffeine resulted in a large reduction in leg-muscle pain-intensity ratings compared with placebo (d = −0.95), and the reduction in leg-muscle pain-intensity ratings was larger in those with lower anxiety-sensitivity scores than those with higher anxiety-sensitivity scores (d = −1.28 based on a difference in difference scores). The results support that caffeine ingestion has a large effect on reducing leg-muscle pain during high-intensity exercise, and the effect is moderated by anxiety sensitivity.

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Barry Lambe, Niamh Murphy, and Adrian Bauman

Background:

There is a paucity of intervention studies assessing active travel to school as a mechanism to increase physical activity. This paper describes the impact of a community-wide intervention on active travel to primary schools in 2 Irish towns.

Methods:

This was a repeat cross-sectional study of a natural experiment. Self-report questionnaires were completed by 5th and 6th grade students in 3 towns (n = 1038 students in 2 intervention towns; n = 419 students in 1 control town) at baseline and by a new group of students 2 years later at follow-up. The absolute change in the proportion of children walking and cycling to school (difference in differences) was calculated.

Results:

There was no overall intervention effect detected for active travel to or from school. This is despite an absolute increase of 14.7% (1.6, 27.9) in the proportion of children that indicated a preference for active travel to school in the town with the most intensive intervention (town 2).

Conclusions:

Interventions designed to increase active travel to school hold some promise but should have a high-intensity mix of infrastructural and behavioral measures, be gender-specific, address car dependency and focus on travel home from school initially.

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Tiffany J. Chen, Kathleen B. Watson, Shannon L. Michael, and Susan A. Carlson

/ethnic group were also incorporated into the sex-specific logistic regression models. Tests of differences in differences (ie, differences between these sex-stratified groups’ and subgroups’ differences from 2009 or 2011 to 2019) were also incorporated into the models. For example, the change from 2009 or 2011

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Eric T. Hyde, Geoffrey P. Whitfield, John D. Omura, Janet E. Fulton, and Susan A. Carlson

.9 to 12.9 13.1 12.0 to 14.3 13.3 12.1 to 14.5 0.01 −0.04 to 0.07 1.4 A C  Active 34.3 33.4 to 35.3 41.1 39.9 to 42.3 43.5 42.4 to 44.7 0.43 0.37 to 0.50 9.2 B L, Q Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; C, cubic trend; CI, confidence interval; D in D, difference in difference; L, linear trend; NHIS

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Geoffrey P. Whitfield, Eric T. Hyde, and Susan A. Carlson

tested differences in overall change across levels of a single covariate (difference in difference analysis, for example, did one age group change more than another?) using pairwise adjusted Wald tests with a Bonferroni correction. To determine the presence of linear and higher-order trends (quadratic

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Toben F. Nelson, Richard F. MacLehose, Cynthia Davey, Peter Rode, and Marilyn S. Nanney

status in 2001. Year was modeled in analyses as a dummy variable to allow for nonlinear trends over time. Because the interaction between FRPL and year was not statistically significant, it was dropped from the final model. Finally, we estimated difference in differences models to assess whether change