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Differential Perceptual and Motivational Patterns When Different Goals Are Adopted

Athanasios Papaioannou

This study examined how perceived motivational climate in physical education is related to (a) perceptions of teachers’ differential treatment toward high and low achievers, (b) reported motivation and anxiety of children with high and low perceived competence during play or exercise with high- or low-ability children. One thousand three hundred ninety-three high school students completed measures of the above variables. The perception of teacher’s differential treatment was positively related to the perception of an environment emphasizing social comparison and negatively related to the perception of a climate emphasizing personal progress. Perceived competence had no effect on intrinsic motivation when extremely high learning goals were adopted. When low learning goals were adopted, motivation decreased for children with low perceived ability playing with high achievers and for children with high perceived ability playing with low achievers. A high learning-oriented climate should be created to enhance equality and maximize motivation.

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Effects of Intervention on Differential Treatment of Boys and Girls in Elementary Physical Education Lessons

Raymond R. Dunbar and Mary M. O’Sullivan

This study examined the effects of verbal and graphic feedback on the distribution of teacher verbal behaviors (positive and corrective feedback, praise, desist, and questioning) and the teacher’s use of student demonstrators during elementary coeducation physical education lessons. Data were collected over a 3-month period on two female nonphysical education specialist elementary teachers. A multiple baseline design was used to show the efficacy of the treatment. The results indicated that in baseline both teachers interacted with boys and girls inequitably on all variables. The intervention package and daily follow-up were influential in establishing more equitable teacher interaction patterns with boys and girls. The teachers’ use of demonstrators was also distributed more equitably between boys and girls following the intervention.

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Beyond the Racial Binary: Stacking in Women’s Collegiate Softball

Katherine M. Jamieson, Justine J. Reel, and Diane L. Gill

Differential treatment by race has been documented in sport, including the opportunity to occupy specific positions. Few researchers have examined the theoretical fit of stacking in women’s sport contexts. Moreover, the three published studies of stacking in women’s athletics were examinations of positional segregation for white and African American women only. Binary conceptions of race are no longer sufficient to explain the complexity of power relations that are visible through phenomena such as stacking. This study focused on the stacking of four major racial groups in NCAA Division I softball. Based upon the results, we suggest that stacking of racial-ethnic minority women may occur in patterns different from those identified in previous stacking studies.

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Factors Influencing College Students’ Self-Perceptions of Competence in Beginning Physical Education Classes

Janice M. Bibik

This study examined how college-age students in beginning activity classes construct their self-perceptions of physical competence. Each class was videotaped, one class per week. During the last week of class, a perceived competence instrument was administered to the students (N = 50) and the teachers. Results indicated 50% of the students’ perceptions of their competence were congruent with the teachers’; 50% were incongruent (32% higher, 18% lower). The Revised Causal Dimension Scale, also administered at the end of the semester, indicated the predominant attribution was effort. Interviews revealed group characteristics regarding attribution for success, interpretation of feedback, and use of social comparison. Videotape analysis using the Dyadic Adaptation of CAFIAS indicated some differential treatment occurred; students whose perceptions of competence were lower than their instructor’s received more corrective feedback. It was concluded that the students interpreted themselves in the instructional context which accounted for their self-perceptions of competence; the teacher expectation effect played a role as well.

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Pedagogical Considerations Regarding Perceptions of Dance Competence

Janice M. Bibik

This study examined how college-age students in a beginning jazz and modem dance class construct their self-perceptions of dance competence. Each class was videotaped one class per week for 12 weeks. During the 12th week a perceived competence in dance scale was administered to the students (N=26) and the teacher. Results indicated that 57.7% of the students’ perceptions of their competence were congruent with the teacher’s; 42.3% were incongruent (15.3% higher, 27% lower). Based on interviews, these groups displayed distinct characteristics regarding attribution for success, interpretation of feedback, and focus on classroom activities. Videotape analysis using the Dyadic Adaptation of CAFIAS indicated there was no differential treatment of the students by the teacher. It was concluded that, rather than the teacher expectation effect, the students’ interpretation of themselves in the instructional context accounted for their self-perceptions of their competence.

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Sex-Role Stereotyping Behaviors among Elementary, Junior, and Senior High School Physical Education Specialists

Ron E. McBride

Six physical education specialists—two elementary, two junior high, and two high school (three males and three females)—were studied in an attempt to discern possible sex-role stereotyping in their classes. Data were triangulated from teacher observations, a sex-role inventory, and junior and senior high school student perceptions of teacher treatment in physical education classes. Results revealed that the female teachers used more managerial cues in their classes and called boys by name more frequently than did male teachers. Two male teachers were classified as being gender typed, but results from students of both sexes revealed no perceived differential treatment in class. From this teacher sample, the results suggest that perhaps the gymnasium is not quite the bastion of gender typing as is often assumed. Due to the small sample size, results were not generalized to a larger population and thus additional research is recommended.

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Fair Treatment for the Active Female: A Content Analysis of Young Athlete Magazine

Jan Rintala and Susan Birrell

The availability of female role models is examined through a content analysis of Young Athlete magazine. Two research questions are posed: Do males and females receive differential treatment in Young Athlete? Does the representation of males and females in Young Athlete reflect actual participation rates? Young Athlete depicts sport as a male activity. For example, less than one-third of all photographs depict females, and the percentage decreases with the prominence of the photograph. Compared to actual participation rates, Young Athlete subtly distorts girls’ involvement. Girls are markedly under-represented in team sports, even those they dominate numerically. Discussion focuses upon the issue of fair treatment. The conclusion that statistical representation is a safe but narrow definition of fair treatment is explored with reference to current theoretical perspectives on media.

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The Social Construction of Gender Difference and Hierarchy in Sport Journalism — Few New Twists on Very Old Themes

Mary Jo Kane and Janet B. Parks

Past researchers have consistently demonstrated that female and male athletes receive differential treatment in the media: males are presented in ways that emphasize their physical/athletic ability, while females are portrayed in terms of their femininity and physical attractiveness. Researchers have concluded that this pattern of coverage is a manifestation of the social construction of gender difference and hierarchy in sport and thus serves a patriarchal agenda. However, a widely-held “common-sense” perception is that differential treatment occurs due to methodological inconsistencies related to prior research, rather than to media bias designed to devalue and disempower women. For example, in the past, researchers have examined different media types, sports, readerships and editorial policies. These methodological variations are frequently offered by various audiences (ranging from academicians to the general public) as alternative, competing explanations for differential coverage found in prior research. An example of competing explanation, grounded in methodological concerns, is the following: the difference in coverage is perceived to have occurred because one researcher examined professional tennis while another researcher focused on intercollegiate basketball. Implicit in this perception is the suggestion that different sport levels and types are responsible for differential coverage, not media bias. Controlling for methodological differences in previous research, the hermeneutic method was employed to analyze the written text of feature articles in the same magazine (Sports Illustrated), for the same year (1989), covering the same sport (professional tennis). Statements in the text that referred to female and male athletes were classified within a Performance Related Dimension (athletic ability, mental ability, strength of character) or a Non-Performance Related Dimension (emotions, physical appearance, personal life). In spite of tight methodological controls, a consistent pattern of gender difference and hierarchy was found throughout the feature articles. Implications of the study relative to future research that address consumers’ perceptions of media portrayals are presented.

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“To Be, or Not to Be, That Is the Question”: Modeling and Differentiation Among Siblings Participating in Organized Youth Sport

Keith V. Osai, Travis E. Dorsch, and Shawn D. Whiteman

sibling dyad (e.g., via sibling warmth and conflict), but also in the parent–child relationship (e.g., via differential treatment). Previous research suggests that modeling and differentiation have the potential to foster both positive and negative experiences for youth engaged in sport and physical

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Title IX and the Expectation of Equity

Carole Oglesby

. When Sedona Prince, in 2021, posted the social media visuals of the differential treatment of male and female National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) championship basketball teams, Title IX commentary swept over the U.S. sport ecosystem ( Witz, 2022 ). The NCAA initiated an investigation. A law