“corporate hockey” 4 in which international hockey became a “world-class” entertainment product increasingly aligned with the interests of the NHL, and of the political importance of hockey diplomacy for the Government of Canada amidst a period of détente in the Cold War. 5 The International Hockey
Robert J. Sinclair
From the onset, South African amateur wrestling, under the auspices of the SA Amateur Wrestling Union and its successors, was organized along racial lines and, under apartheid, it continued to cater exclusively to white amateurs. By 1970, it was suspended from the International Amateur Wrestling Federation. Denied participation in international competition, it resorted to rebel and boycott-busting tours involving a number of sympathetic countries and individuals in Europe, the Americas, and the Far East. Organized mostly clandestinely, it succeeded in offering international competition to the South African national wrestling team for almost two decades. One program, the Oregon Wrestling Cultural Exchange, was particularly strong. This US-based program generated strong opposition from the Amateur Athletics Association, the International Wrestling Federation, and several anti-apartheid organizations. It survived until the end of the 1980s, when the USA Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act (1986) and the campaigns of the anti-apartheid movement closed it down.
Erin E. Redihan
competitive, and I think we do, we owe it to ourselves to reassess our priorities, to broaden our base of achievement so that we again present our best in the world’s arenas. From a purely political viewpoint, I don’t know of anything more beneficial in diplomacy and prestige. 35 Ford not only identified the
Risk has been a prominent keyword in public and academic spheres since the early 1990s. Discourses of risk assessment and management now underpin a vast range of professional, social and political domains, from the planning of children’s leisure to global diplomacy on nuclear proliferation. Similar to “cultural” and “global” turns, we may speak of a “risk turn” that marks an epistemological and ontological step-change from the early 1990s onwards in social sciences.
Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, Jean F. Fournier, and Alice Dubois
Coaches’ and athletes’ perceptions regarding their effective interactions and the underlying factors and reasons for effectiveness of these interactions were examined. An in-depth interview process was conducted with three expert judo coaches and six elite athletes. Qualitative data analyses revealed that the interaction style of the coaches was authoritative and was put into operation using the following six strategies: stimulating interpersonal rivalry, provoking athletes verbally, displaying indifference, entering into direct conflict, developing specific team cohesion, and showing preferences. Perceived autonomy, the main interaction style of athletes, was expressed by the following five strategies: showing diplomacy, achieving exceptional performance, soliciting coaches directly, diversifying information sources, and bypassing conventional rules. Results demonstrated the compatibility of particular interactions between coaches’ and athletes’ strategies. Theoretical models from industrial/organizational psychology are used to interpret these results, which differ from conventional findings in the sport psychology literature.
together a strong collection of articles that together show the role that sports played in Cold War diplomacy. Perhaps the best chapter in the work is Lindsay Parks Pieper’s “‘Wolves in Skirts?’ Sex Testing in Cold War Women’s Sport.” Parks Pieper, Associate Professor of Sport Management at the University
research fellow in the History Discipline Group. Her research interests include histories of gymnastics, Olympic politics, diplomacy, and gender. She recently co-edited a book on biographies of women leaders in global sport in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Tom Fabian is an assistant professor of
Carrie W. LeCrom and Tiesha Martin
intentional form of diplomatic instrument used by governments, international sport nonetheless serves as a form of diplomacy in its own right. Like more traditional diplomacy between governments, international sporting competition mediates estrangement between states, peoples and other actors. Like sending
Jan Haut, Freya Gassmann, Eike Emrich, Tim Meyer, and Christian Pierdzioch
a potential tool of diplomacy ( Rofe & Dichter, 2016 ; Luša, 2017 ), and for gaining soft power ( Grix & Brannagan, 2016 ). Yet, most studies have focused only on the impact of hosting SMEs on the international perception of countries, while the impact of sporting success has rarely been specified