). One important contemporary classification differentiates between goal-directed thinking, which refers to controlled processes and spontaneous thinking, stimulus-independent thinking, and mindwandering ( Fox, Spreng, Ellamil, Andrews-Hanna, & Christoff, 2015 ), which all refer to automatic processes
Ayoub Asadi, Alireza Farsi, Behrouz Abdoli, Esmaeel Saemi and Jared M. Porter
It is well established that providing instructions that direct attention externally rather than internally enhances motor skill performance ( Wulf, 2013 ). For several years the constrained action hypothesis has been cited as the most likely explanation for why directing attention externally
Alexander T. Latinjak, Marc Masó and Nikos Comoutos
“Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn.” This famous quote by Benjamin Franklin illustrates how important active involvement in learning is for learning. In this sense, self-directed attention-focusing strategies such as goal-directed self-talk may be critical in
Cheryl A. Howe, Kimberly A. Clevenger, Brian Plow, Steve Porter and Gaurav Sinha
, 7 , 9 , 29 ). There is no similar direct observation research on other group differences (eg, by weight status) because it is difficult to monitor multiple groups at the same time (eg, by sex and weight status) and to identify which children belong in which weight status group using real-time direct
James W. Roberts
Since the findings of endpoint variability in target-directed movements being scaled to the magnitude of response impulses ( Schmidt, Zelaznik, Hawkins, Frank, & Quinn, 1979 ), eminent theories have placed a great emphasis on how performers cope with such circumstances and the associated trade
Jenna D. Gilchrist, David E. Conroy and Catherine M. Sabiston
short-term (often hedonic) costs such as expending effort ( Tracy & Robins, 2004 ; Williams & DeSteno, 2008 ) and direct motivation toward competence pursuits. Conversely, shame stems from appraisals that the self has not lived up to a set of standards and generally signals incompetence ( Tangney
Pedro L. Valenzuela, Carlos Amo, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa
stimulation, a main noninvasive brain stimulation technique is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), 3 which consists of delivering a weak continuous electrical current to a targeted brain area using surface electrodes attached to the scalp. When applied over the motor cortex, tDCS has proven to
Athena Yiamouyiannis, Glenna G. Bower, Joanne Williams, Dina Gentile and Heather Alderman
Accreditation and accountability in sport management education are necessary to ensure academic rigor and can serve as vehicles by which sport management educators examine and enhance the academic quality of their programs. This paper addresses this topic first with a discussion of the need for accreditation and a review of the accrediting agencies and other entities involved (CHEA, USDE, regional and specialized accrediting agencies, and state involvement). Next is a brief overview of COSMA’s accreditation process, and then a focus on direct learning outcomes and assessment tools. Becoming more familiar with the value and purpose of accreditation in general, as well as the specifics of the COSMA accreditation process as it relates to the common professional components (CPCs) and direct learning outcome assessments, can help with obtaining faculty commitment to the accreditation process and with continued enhancement of the academic quality of sport management programs.
John H. Challis
In three-dimensional image-based motion analysis, the direct linear transformation (DLT) is commonly used to measure locations of significant body landmarks. The major drawback of the DLT is that the control points used for calibration must encompass the volume in which the activity occurs. A new procedure is presented where the calibration frame is moved sequentially, permitting calibration of a volume much larger than that encompassed by the calibration frame. A calibration frame with a volume of 0.6 m3 was used to calibrate a volume six times greater, by placing the frame in eight different positions. Reconstruction accuracy was comparable with that for the original frame position. This new multiphase calibration procedure presents the opportunity for calibrating large volumes using a small calibration frame; this may be advantageous, for example, in sporting arenas, where the transportation or manufacture of a sufficiently large calibration frame may be problematic.
Amanda M. Ward, Torrey M. Loucks, Edward Ofori and Jacob J. Sosnoff
Audiomotor and visuomotor short-term memory are required for an important variety of skilled movements but have not been compared in a direct manner previously. Audiomotor memory capacity might be greater to accommodate auditory goals that are less directly related to movement outcome than for visually guided tasks. Subjects produced continuous isometric force with the right index finger under auditory and visual feedback. During the first 10 s of each trial, subjects received continuous auditory or visual feedback. For the following 15 s, feedback was removed but the force had to be maintained accurately. An internal effort condition was included to test memory capacity in the same manner but without external feedback. Similar decay times of ~5–6 s were found for vision and audition but the decay time for internal effort was ~4 s. External feedback thus provides an advantage in maintaining a force level after feedback removal, but may not exclude some contribution from a sense of effort. Short-term memory capacity appears longer than certain previous reports but there may not be strong distinctions in capacity across different sensory modalities, at least for isometric force.