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Thomas A. Stoffregen

can be useful because they provide information about movement relative to multiple, simultaneous referents and because, in principle, they permit veridical (i.e., direct) perception of movement relative to multiple, simultaneous referents. That is, the existence of the global array offers the

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Mark Eys, Mark R. Beauchamp, Michael Godfrey, Kim Dawson, Todd M. Loughead, and Robert J. Schinke

remaining objectives of the present study were to (a) develop a measure integrating direct perceptions of role commitment and the bases of this important group variable and (b) determine if role commitment could predict athletes’ intentions to return (as evidence of construct validity). Figure 1

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Alkisti Olympiou, Sophia Jowett, and Joan L. Duda

The study’s objective was to investigate the motivational significance of the coach-athlete relationship in team sports. 591 athletes completed the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (Newton, Duda, & Yin, 2000) to assess perceptions of the coach-created motivational climate and two Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaires to assess direct perceptions (Jowett & Ntoumanis, 2004) and meta-perceptions (Jowett, in press) of the relationship quality. Canonical correlation analyses revealed that the perceived task-involving features of the coaching climate, in which role importance, co-operation, and improvement are emphasized, were associated with experiencing higher levels of closeness, commitment, and complementarity with the coach. Perceptions of the ego-involving features of the coach-created environment which emphasizes punitive responses to mistakes, rivalry, and unequal recognition were associated with lower levels of perceived closeness, commitment, and complementarity with the coach. These results support the notion that the coach-athlete relationship has implications for the motivation of athletes participating in team sports.

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Jeromy M. Alt, Adam W. Kiefer, Ryan MacPherson, Tehran J. Davis, and Paula L. Silva

specifies the minimal speed required for successful passage in an intrinsic unit that, with proper calibration (i.e., appropriate scaling from information to action capability), supports the direct perception of passability and related action decisions ( Fajen & Matthis, 2011 ). According to the

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Razieh Raeisiyan, Behrouz Abdoli, Alireza Farsi, and Hamidollah Hassanlouei

to a stimulus ( Schuster et al., 2013 ). In E. J. Gibson and J. J. Gibson’s ecological approach to perception, with its emphasis on the direct perception of information from the world, there is a profound influence on the direction of the entire field. They believe perceptual learning consists of

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Mohsen Shafizadeh, Jane Manson, Sally Fowler-Davis, Khalid Ali, Anna C. Lowe, Judy Stevenson, Shahab Parvinpour, and Keith Davids

Activity Dynamic postural stability during locomotion significantly relies on the strategy, cognitive planning, and perception of surrounding environments ( Rosenbaum, 2010 ). According to the theory of direct perception ( Gibson, 1979 ), an organism could directly utilize environmental information for

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Louise Davis, Sophia Jowett, and Daniel Sörman

them. Specifically, coaches’ direct perceptions of relationship quality (e.g., I am committed to my athlete) were associated with coaches’ levels of being alert and alive as well as energized within the specific context of coaching their athletes, whereas their meta-perceptions of relationship quality

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Keith McShan and E. Whitney G. Moore

from the direct perception. Perceived Athletes’ Variables Researchers have examined coaches’ CAR perceptions with their provision of a wide variety of skill development opportunities for athletes in and out of the sport context ( Bissett & Tamminen, 2022 ; Camiré et al., 2019 ; Chow et al., 2019

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Steven van Andel, Robin Pieper, Inge Werner, Felix Wachholz, Maurice Mohr, and Peter Federolf

role of working memory in motor learning and performance . Consciousness and Cognition, 12 ( 3 ), 376 – 402 . 10.1016/S1053-8100(03)00005-9 Michaels , C.F. , & Carello , C. ( 1981 ). Direct perception . Prentice-Hall, Inc . Moher , D. ( 2009