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John Andrew Badagliacco and Andrew Karduna

errors: root mean square (RMS) error and constant error. 29 Although RMS errors are an assessment of overall error, constant errors reflect directionality of errors. For each dependent variable, a 3-way analysis of variance was run, with 1 between-subject comparison, group (pitchers and controls), and 2

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Wen-Hao Hsu, Evelyn J. Park, Daniel L. Miranda, Hani M. Sallum, Conor J. Walsh and Eugene C. Goldfield

study, therefore, was to examine how adults may selectively regulate the directionality of the body sway motion while new walkers are standing and taking their first steps. To examine the role of the adult in using selective application of forces to regulate directionality of the behavior of the child

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Tom Willmott and Dave Collins

This study offered a first examination of skill development within freeskiing and snowboarding, using semistructured interviews to examine trick progression. Participants were purposefully recruited as performing at world top 8 level in 2014, the most recent Winter Olympic Games. A semi structured interview protocol, using a personalized progress chart, enabled the examination of trick progression across disciplines, with at least one participant from each of the events represented at the Games. Trick progression was achieved intermittently, moving through different stages during the year subject to experiencing the right conditions, training facilities, balancing time for progression with time for consolidation, competition periods and rehabilitating from injuries. There was high variance in the duration of trick progression between individuals and also high variance in the number of repetitions required to land a trick in competition. Imagery was a mental skill widely used and universally supported by our sample. Athletes and coaches should take directionality into consideration when planning their progression, ensuring all four directions are included and that prerequisite manoeuvres are included in an athlete’s training repertoire at the right stage to facilitate the learning of more complex manoeuvres at a later stage of development. Our data found a 60–40 balance between time-spent training on and off-snow, further research is required to determine the best combination of traditional strength and conditioning versus movement conditioning approaches, both from an injury prevention and a performance enhancement perspective.

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Joseph S. Soltys and Sara E. Wilson

Regulating spinal motion requires proprioceptive feedback. While studies have investigated the sensing of static lumbar postures, few have investigated sensing lumbar movement speed. In this study, proprioceptive contributions to lateral trunk motion were examined during paraspinal muscle vibration. Seventeen healthy subjects performed lateral trunk flexion movements while lying prone with pelvis fixed. A 44.5-Hz vibratory stimulus was applied to the paraspinal muscles at the L3 level. Subjects attempted to match target paces of 9.5, 13.5, and 17.5 deg/s with and without paraspinal muscle vibration. Vibration of the paraspinal musculature was found to result in slower overall lateral flexion. This effect was found to have a greater influence in the difference of directional velocities with vibration applied to the left musculature. These changes reflect the sensitivity of lumbar velocity sense to applied vibration leading to the perception of faster muscle lengthening and ultimately resulting in slower movement velocities. This suggests that muscle spindle organs modulate the ability to sense velocity of motion and are important in the control of dynamic motion of the spine.

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Hedwig Bogaerts and Stephan P. Swinnen

Whereas previous bimanual coordination research has predominantly focused on the constraining role of timing, the present study addressed the role of spatial (i.e., directional) constraints during the simultaneous production of equilateral triangles with both upper limbs. In addition to coordination modes in which mirror-image and isodirectional movements were performed (compatible patterns), new modes were tested in which the left limb lagged with respect to the right by one triangle side (non-compatible patterns). This resulted in the experimental manipulation of directional compatibility between the limbs. In addition. triangles with either horizontal or vertical orientations were to be drawn in order to assess the role of static images on movement production. Results supported the important role of directional constraints in bimanual coordination. Furthermore, triangles in vertical orientations (with a vertical symmetry axis, i.e., one apex pointing up) were drawn more successfully than those in horizontal orientations (with a horizontal symmetry axis, i.e., one apex pointing left or right), suggesting that the static aspects of a geometric form may affect movement dynamics. Finally, evidence suggested that cognitive processes related to integration of the submovements into a unified plan mediate the performance of new coordination patterns. The implications of the present findings for clinical populations are discussed.

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Joanne Butt, Robert Weinberg and Thelma Horn

The purposes of the present investigation were twofold: (a) to investigate the fluctuations of anxiety and self-confidence throughout competition by measuring these variables retrospectively before, during, and after competition and (b) to investigate the relationship between the intensity and directional interpretation of anxiety and perceived performance across competition. Field hockey players (N = 62) completed the modified Mental Readiness Form-Likert (MRF-2) within 30 minutes after competition using the method of retrospective recall. Results indicated significant fluctuations across competition for cognitive anxiety intensity and direction, somatic anxiety intensity, and self-confidence intensity. Results also revealed that the strongest predictors of performance across both halves were self-confidence intensity and direction and cognitive anxiety direction. These findings should have important implications for practitioners and sport psychologists because anxiety measurement and confidence are critical parts of most psychological skills training programs.

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Guillaume Martinent and Claude Ferrand

The purpose of this study was to explore the directional interpretation process of discrete emotions experienced by table tennis players during competitive matches by adopting a naturalistic qualitative video-assisted approach. Thirty self-confrontation interviews were conducted with 11 national table tennis players (2 or 3 matches per participants). Nine discrete emotions were identified through the inductive analyses of the participants' transcriptions: anger, anxiety, discouragement, disappointment, disgust, joy, serenity, relief, and hope. Inductive analyses revealed the emergence of 4 categories and 13 themes among the 9 discrete emotions: positive direction (increased concentration, increased motivation, increased confidence, positive sensations, and adaptive behaviors), negative direction (decreased concentration, decreased motivation, too confident, decreased confidence, negative sensations, and maladaptive behaviors), neutral direction (take more risk and take less risk), and no perceived influence on own performance. Results are discussed in terms of current research on directional interpretation and emotions in sport.

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Andrew M. Johnson, Philip A. Vernon, Quincy J. Almeida, Linda L. Grantier and Mandar S. Jog

The effect of a precue on improving movement initiation (i.e., reaction time; RT) is well understood, whereas its influence on movement execution (i.e., movement time; MT) has rarely been examined. The current study investigated the influence of a directional precue (i.e., left vs. right) on the RT and MT of simple and discrete bi-directional movements in a large sample of Parkinson's disease patients and healthy control participants. Both patients and controls were tested twice, with testing sessions separated by 2 hours. Patients were tested first following an overnight levodopa withdrawal and again after they had taken their medication. Both patients and controls demonstrated a significant RT improvement when information was provided in advance. MT in both healthy participants and medicated patients was, however, slower with the provision of advance information, while unmedicated patients showed no significant MT effects. These results suggest that while the basal ganglia may not be involved in motor program selection, they may dynamically modulate movement execution.

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Yiannis Michailidis, Alexandros Tabouris and Thomas Metaxas

children? Strength Cond J . 2000 ; 22 : 45 – 46 . doi:10.1519/1533-4295(2000)022<0045:APSFC>2.0.CO;2 10.1519/1533-4295(2000)022<0045:APSFC>2.0.CO;2 11. Beato M , Bianchi M , Coratella G , Merlini M , Drust B . Effects of plyometric and directional training on speed and jump performance in

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Guillaume Martinent, Michel Nicolas, Patrick Gaudreau and Mickaël Campo

The purposes of the current study were to identify affective profiles of athletes both before and during the competition and to examine differences between these profiles on coping and attainment of sport goals among a sample of 306 athletes. The results of hierarchical (Ward’s method) and nonhierarchical (k means) cluster analyses revealed four different clusters both before and during the competition. The four clusters were very similar at the two measurement occasions: high positive affect facilitators (n = 88 and 81), facilitators (n = 75 and 25), low affect debilitators (n = 83 and 127), and high negative affect debilitators (n = 60 and 73). Results of MANOVAs revealed that coping and attainment of sport achievement goal significantly differed across the affective profiles. Results are discussed in terms of current research on positive and negative affective states.