We evaluated several behavioral coaching procedures with two young adults who had intellectual and developmental disabilities and were preparing for a Special Olympics track event. The primary dependent measure was their time running a 100 m sprint. Following a baseline phase, the athletes were coached to improve sprint times through different combinations of goal setting, performance feedback, positive reinforcement, and video modeling. In a sequential design, the average sprint time of both athletes was lower during intervention conditions compared with baseline. Following intervention, they ran faster than their baseline average in competition at a regional Special Olympics event. We discuss intervention and research issues in behavioral coaching of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
James K. Luiselli, Neelima G. Duncan, Patrick Keary, Elizabeth Godbold Nelson, Rebecca E. Parenteau and Kathryn E. Woods
Barıs Seven, Gamze Cobanoglu, Deran Oskay and Nevin Atalay-Guzel
Context: The evaluation of the wrist strength and proprioception gives clinicians and researchers information about effectiveness of their rehabilitation protocol or helps diagnosis of various neuromuscular and somatosensorial disorders. Isokinetic dynamometers are considered the gold standard for these evaluations. However, the studies about test–retest reliability of isokinetic dynamometer are inadequate. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the test–retest reliability of isokinetic wrist strength and proprioception measurements using the Cybex isokinetic dynamometer. Design: Test–retest reliability study. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: Thirty participants were enrolled (age 23.2 [2.8] y, height 171.1  cm, weight 66.6 [11.6] kg) in this study. Intervention: Cybex isokinetic dynamometer was used for strength and proprioception measurements. Main Outcome Measures: Concentric flexion–extension strength test was performed at 90°/s angular velocity, and eccentric flexion–extension strength test was performed at 60°/s angular velocity. The proprioception of the wrist was assessed via active joint position sense. The 30° extension of the wrist, which is accepted as the functional position of the wrist, was selected as the targeted angle. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) method was used for test–retest analysis (P < .05). Results: The active joint position sense measurements of dominant (ICC2,1: .821) and nondominant (ICC2,1: .763) sides were found to have good test–retest reliability. Furthermore, with the exception of dominant eccentric extension strength (moderate reliability) (ICC2,1: .733), eccentric and concentric flexion (dominant: ICC2,1 = .890–.844; nondominant: ICC2,1 = .800–.898, respectively), and extension (dominant: ICC2,1 = .791 [concentric], nondominant: ICC2,1 = .791–.818, respectively) strength measurements of both sides were found to have good reliability. Conclusions: This study shows that the Cybex isokinetic dynamometer is a reliable method for measuring wrist strength and proprioception. Isokinetic dynamometers can be used clinically for diagnosis or rehabilitation in studies which contain wrist proprioception or strength measurements.
Rosanna Gilderthorp, Jan Burns and Fergal Jones
.T. , Yen , C.F. , Teng , S.W. , Liao , H.F. , Chang , K.H. , Chi , W.C. , … Liou , T.H. ( 2013 ). Implementing disability evaluation and welfare services based on the framework of the international classification of functioning, disability and health: Experiences in Taiwan . BMC Health
Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Rasool Bagheri and Morteza Taghipour
no information on the number of trials. 24 , 40 , 41 , 47 Finally, reliability analyses were appropriately documented and reported in 9 studies. 1 , 24 , 39 , 40 , 46 – 50 Discussion Assessment of spinal mobility is critical for estimating disability, evaluating outcomes, and guiding nonsurgical