This study examined the effects of model type and verbal rehearsal strategy in relation to motor sequencing of boys with learning disabilities (LD). Eighty boys, ages 7 and 8 years, were exposed to four experimental conditions in a 2 × 2 (Model × Verbal Rehearsal Strategy) design. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (a) visual-silent model/verbal rehearsal, (b) visual-verbal model/verbal rehearsal, (c) visual-silent model/ no verbal rehearsal, and (d) visual-verbal model/ no verbal rehearsal. The four groups were statistically equal on measures of age, IQ, behavior, learner modality preference, and motor proficiency. Data collected for experimental analysis were generated by the Motor Sequencing Test which measured the ability to model seven locomotor tasks in the correct order. Results revealed that the boys with LD performed significantly better on the motor sequencing test when trained in verbal rehearsal strategy. However, results indicated no significant difference in motor sequencing under visual-silent and visual-verbal model conditions.
Ellen M. Kowalski and Claudine Sherrill
Arya M. Sharma, Donna L. Goodwin and Janice Causgrove Dunn
Dr. Arya M. Sharma challenges the conventional wisdom of relying simply on “lifestyle” approaches involving exercise, diet, and behavioral interventions for managing obesity, suggesting that people living with obesity should receive comprehensive medical interventions similar to the approach taken for other chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes or hypertension. He purports that the stigma-inducing focus on self-failing (e.g., coping through food, laziness, lack of self-regulation) does not address biological processes that make obesity a lifelong problem for which there is no easy solution. Interdisciplinary approaches to obesity are advocated, including that of adapted physical activity. Physical activity has multifaceted impacts beyond increasing caloric expenditure, including improved sleep, better mood, increased energy levels, enhanced self-esteem, reduced stress, and an enhanced sense of well-being. The interview with Dr. Sharma, transcribed from a keynote address delivered at the North American Adapted Physical Activity Symposium on September 22, 2016, in Edmonton, AB, Canada, outlines his rationale for approaching obesity as a chronic disease.
Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Joonkoo Yun, Jooyeon Jin, Jeffrey A. McCubbin and Robert W. Motl
individuals. In the context of public health, Drum ( 2009 ) broadly identified four major categories of disability models: (a) medical, (b) functional, (c) social, and (d) integrated. Briefly, the medical model views disability as a problem inherent in the person requiring a medical cure, and classifies
Sungchul Lee, Sangyoon Lee, Seongryu Bae, Kazuhiro Harada, Songee Jung, Keitaro Makino and Hiroyuki Shimada
Between eGFR and Disability Model 1 Model 2 Variable Hazard ratio [95% CI] p value Hazard ratio [95% CI] p value eGFR ≥ 60, n = 3,468 1 1 eGFR 45–59, n = 839 1.026 [0.821–1.283] .825 1.013 [0.798–1.287] .912 eGFR < 45, n = 150 2.526 [1.391–2.933] .013 1.741 [1.193–2.539] .004 Note . Model 1 was
Andrew Hammond, Ruth Jeanes, Dawn Penney and Deana Leahy
. University of Toronto Press . Silva , C.F. , & Howe , P.D. ( 2012 ). The (in)validity of supercrip representation of Paralympian athletes . Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 36 ( 2 ), 174 – 194 . doi: 10.1177/0193723511433865 Smith , B. , & Bundon , A. ( 2017 ). Disability models: Explaining
assisted ambulation through the use of mobility technology such as prosthetics, walking aids, manual wheelchairs, or motorized wheelchairs. Disability models are sets of assumptions about the cause, nature, and treatment of disability. The medical model views disability as an individual pathology that