The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the effectiveness of a disability sport unit in shaping perceptions of disability. Data from interviews, observations, and documents were collected on 87 elementary-aged students, one physical education teacher, and one teaching intern. Comparisons were drawn between fifth graders engaged in a five-week disability sport unit to fourth graders participating in their standard physical education curriculum. Findings revealed differences in the way fourth and fifth graders came to view individuals with disabilities. The results support an analysis of curriculum development that underscores the significance of the social model in positively impacting constructions of disability. Recommendations include the use of disability sports in physical education as an effective strategy for educating students in game play, knowledge of the Paralympics, and the inclusion of individuals with disabilities in a variety of sporting venues.
Michelle Grenier, Karen Collins, Steven Wright and Catherine Kearns
Michael S. Ferrara and Ronald W. Davis
Samuel Lins, Cynthia F. Melo, Sara G. Alves and Rúben L. Silva
The 2016 Paralympic Games hosted in Rio de Janeiro provided a context of increased social relevance of disability and disability sports. Disability sports can be defined as “sports that have been designed for or practiced by athletes with disabilities” ( DePauw & Gavron, 2005 , p. 8). Within this
Michelle A. Grenier, Andrew Horrell and Bryan Genovese
Having a disability and being a teacher can be a critical site for examining practices associated with ability, competence, and pedagogy. While there is a growing literature base that examines the experiences of students with disabilities in physical education, there is virtually no research that examines the experiences of physical education teachers with disabilities. Using the capability approach, this article explores the experiences of a physical education teaching intern with a physical disability, significant school members, and the students he interacted with through interviews and documents. The results yielded 3 primary themes. The first, "the fluid nature of the disability discourse," demonstrated the complexity of disability and explored the contrast between static tendencies that stereotype disability and the disability experience. The second theme, "doing things my way," reflected the intern’s need to distinguish himself as a teacher by defining contexts for experiencing competence. The third and final theme, "agent of change," explored how the intern’s experiences as a teacher with a disability informed his educational narrative.
Julia Kathrin Baumgart and Øyvind Sandbakk
To investigate on-ice repeated-sprint and sports-specific-technique abilities and the relationships to aerobic and anaerobic off-ice capacities in world-class ice sledge hockey players.
Twelve Norwegian national team players performed 8 repeated maximal 30-m sprints and a sports-specific-technique test while upper-body poling on ice, followed by 4 maximal upper-body strength tests and 8-s peak power and 3-min peak aerobic-capacity (VO2peak) tests while ergometer poling.
The fastest 30-m sprint time was 6.5 ± 0.4 s, the fastest initial 10-m split-time 2.9 ± 0.2 s, and the corresponding power output 212 ± 37 W. Average 30-m time during the 8 repeated sprints was 6.7 ± 0.4 s, and the sprint-time decrement was 4.3% ± 1.8%. Time to execute the sport-specific-technique test was 25.6 ± 2.7 s. Averaged 1-repetition-maximum strength of the 4 exercises correlated with the fastest 30-m sprint time (r = –.77), the fastest initial 10-m split time (r = –.72), the corresponding power output (r = .67), and the average 30-m sprint time (r = –.84) (all P < .05). Peak power of the 8-s ergometer sprint test correlated with the highest initial 10-m power (r = .83, P < .01) and the average 30-m sprint time (r = –.68, P < .05). Average 3-min ergometer power (r = –.86, P < .01) and VO2peak (r = –.67, P < .05) correlated with the sprint-time decrement. All off-ice variables except VO2peak correlated with technique-test time (r = –.58 to .73, all P < .05).
Maximal strength and power are associated with the ability to sprint fast and rapid execution of a technically complex test, whereas mode-specific endurance capacity is particularly important for maintenance of sprint ability in ice sledge hockey.
Trevor Williams and Tarja Kolkka
The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the structural functionalist sociological perspective in a disability sport inquiry. A study of socialization into wheelchair basketball is used to show how the ontological and epistemological assumptions of structural functionalism underlie decisions about the research problem and subproblems, data collection method, explanation of the results, and conclusion. Wheelchair basketball is conceptualized as a social system, and socialization as a process that ensures pattern maintenance within the system. A critique is offered of how the perspective has been interpreted in the disability sport literature, its capacity to incorporate variance, and theoretical and heuristic utility for examining disability sports.
Christian von Sikorski and Thomas Schierl
Previous studies have demonstrated that the media, by specifically framing news articles, may systematically affect a nondisabled recipient’s perception of athletes with disabilities (AWDs). However, it remains unclear how specific sports news frames affect a recipient’s quality perception of a journalistic product and if news frames further affect an individual’s postexposure behavior in social interaction with a person with a disability (PWD). To shed some light on these potential news-framing effects, 2 experimental studies (between-subjects designs) were conducted. Study 1 revealed systematic news framing’s effects on recipients’ attitudes toward a depicted AWD and showed effects on a recipient’s perceived quality of a news story. Study 2 further revealed that specific news frames may (automatically) affect a recipient’s behavior (e.g., verbal communication performance, visual attention/ eye contacts) in a subsequent face-to-face social interaction with a PWD. The findings are discussed regarding their implications for the journalistic coverage of disability sports in the media.
Christian von Sikorski, Thomas Schierl, Carsten Möller and Kai P. Oberhäuser
The international media coverage of athletes with physical disabilities (AWD) shows diverse quantitative and qualitative shortcomings. This study explores what effects a specific visual framing in a print article about disability sports has on recipients’ attitudes toward a depicted AWD. In an experiment with a 3 (framed conditions) × 2 (participants’ contact with people with disabilities) betweensubjects design, 88 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 (framed) conditions. The participants read a sports news article with a photograph of a 1-armed javelin thrower with no spectators, a few spectators, or a large crowd shown in the background. After examining the participants’ responses to a questionnaire, an ANOVA showed that the participants’ attitudes toward the depicted AWD were significantly more positive when the visual frame included spectators in the background of the picture.
Scott R. Swanson, Tom Colwell and Yushan Zhao
Disability sports organizations could benefit from a better understanding of the factors leading individuals with disabilities to participate in sport. This study explored relationships among four sources of motivation (i.e., escape, self-esteem enhancement, self-improvement, and social interaction) and six forms of social support (i.e., emotional challenge, emotional support, listening support, reality confirmation, task appreciation, and task challenge) among 133 male and 60 female wheelchair athletes, ages 13–34 years. Differences in motivation and social support needs were examined according to athletes’ gender, age, playing level, skill level, years of participation, and future playing intentions. Results indicated that males were more motivated than females were by desire for escape and that long-term participants were more motivated than novices were by self-esteem enhancement. Escape, self-improvement, and social interaction were stronger motivators for high school athletes than for collegiate athletes. Importance of social support types differed according to skill level, playing level, years played, and future playing intentions.
Øyvind F. Standal, Tor Erik H. Nyquist and Hanne H. Mong
people have become employed as sports pedagogues in rehabilitation in Norway. The development of sports pedagogues as a professional group in Norway can be related to international trends occurring at the same time. Hutzler ( 2007 ) refers to Lorenzen’s German textbook on disability sports