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T. Nicole Kirk and Justin A. Haegele

in the United States reported meeting these guidelines. Though it is clear that physical activity participation is a problem across all age groups, research indicates that in general, individuals with disabilities tend to be particularly inactive ( Buchholz, McGillivray, & Pencharz, 2003 ; Carroll

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Samuel W. Logan, Christina M. Hospodar, Kathleen R. Bogart, Michele A. Catena, Heather A. Feldner, Jenna Fitzgerald, Sarah Schaffer, Bethany Sloane, Benjamin Phelps, Joshua Phelps and William D. Smart

More than 30 years of research has demonstrated that young children with disabilities who use powered mobility devices for self-directed mobility experience developmental gains such as increased self-initiated social interactions and social skills, increased exploration of the environment, and

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Kwok Ng, Jorma Tynjälä, Dagmar Sigmundová, Lilly Augustine, Mariane Sentenac, Pauli Rintala and Jo Inchley

-intensity PA daily ( World Health Organization [WHO], 2010 ). It is also important for youth with disabilities to engage in PA and meet the PARH as regular participation in PA distinctly reduces health complications secondary to disability conditions ( Rimmer, Schiller, & Chen, 2012 ). According to the

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Youngdeok Kim, Jaehoon Cho, Dana K Fuller and Minsoo Kang

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates of physical activity (PA) with personal and environmental factors among people with disabilities in South Korea.

Methods:

Data from the 2011 National Survey for Physical Activity and Exercise for the Disabled, conducted by Korea Sports Association for the Disabled, was used (n = 1478). The personal characteristics (age, gender, occupation, types of disabilities, family income) and the numbers of public PA-related facilities (welfare center, public indoor gym, and public outdoor facilities) and social sports/exercise clubs for people with disabilities across 16 local areas were also obtained. Hierarchical generalized linear model was used to examine subjectively measured PA in relation to personal and environmental factors.

Results:

The likelihood of engaging in PA was significantly lower for women with disabilities. People with hearing and intellectual disabilities were less likely to engage in PA compared with those with physical disabilities. The availability of sports/exercise clubs for people with disabilities was the only environmental factor that was significantly associated with PA.

Conclusions:

These findings suggest the need of systematic intervention strategies based upon personal characteristics of people with disabilities. Further public efforts to promote sports/exercise club activities should be encouraged in this population.

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Nancy Spencer-Cavaliere and Danielle Peers

The inclusion of able-bodied athletes within disability sport, a phenomenon known as reverse integration, has sparked significant debate within adapted physical activity. Although researchers and practitioners have taken up positions for or against reverse integration, there is a lack of supporting research on the experiences of athletes who already play in such settings. In this study, we explore how competitive female athletes who have a disability experience reverse integration in Canadian wheelchair basketball. Athletic identity was used as the initial conceptual framework to guide semistructured interviews with nine participants. The results suggest that participation in this context contributed to positive athletic identities. Interviews also pointed to the unexpected theme of “what’s the difference?” that this sporting context provided a space for the questioning and creative negotiation of the categories of disability and able-bodiedness. Methodologically, this paper also explores the possibilities and challenges of inter- worldview and insider-outsider research collaboration.

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Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

This study descriptively measured the universal accessibility of “accessible” fitness and recreational facilities for Ontarians living with mobility disabilities. The physical and social environments of 44 fitness and recreational facilities that identified as “accessible” were assessed using a modified version of the AIMFREE. None of the 44 facilities were completely accessible. Mean accessibility ratings ranged between 31 and 63 out of a possible 100. Overall, recreational facilities had higher accessibility scores than fitness centers, with significant differences found on professional support and training, entrance areas, and parking lot. A modest correlation was found between the availability of fitness programming and the overall accessibility of fitness-center specific facility areas. Overall, the physical and social environments of the 44 fitness and recreational facilities assessed were limited in their accessibility for persons with mobility disabilities. Future efforts should be directed at establishing and meeting universal accessibility guidelines for Canadian physical activity facilities.

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Heidi I. Stanish, Carol Curtin, Aviva Must, Sarah Phillips, Melissa Maslin and Linda G. Bandini

Background:

Youths with intellectual disabilities (ID) exhibit low levels of physical activity, but the underlying contributors to behavior are unclear. We compared physical activity enjoyment, perceived barriers, beliefs, and self-efficacy among adolescents with ID and typically developing (TD) adolescents.

Methods:

A questionnaire was administered to 38 adolescents with ID (mean age, 16.8 years) and 60 TD adolescents (mean age, 15.3 years). Of the original 33 questionnaire items, 23 met the test-retest reliability criteria and were included in the group comparisons.

Results:

Fewer adolescents with ID reported that they have someone with whom to do physical activity (64% vs 93%: P < .001), and a greater percentage of adolescents with ID perceived that physical activities were too hard to learn (41% vs 0%; P < .001). Fewer adolescents with ID believed that physical activity would be good for their health (92% vs 100%; P = .05). More adolescents with ID reported a dislike of individual physical activities (P = .02). A large percentage of adolescents with ID (84%) responded that they were good at doing physical activities, but the difference between groups was only of borderline significance (95% of TD adolescents, P = .06).

Conclusions:

Adolescents shared many of the same perceptions about physical activity, but some important differences between groups were identified.

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Terese Wilhelmsen and Marit Sørensen

This systematic review examines research published from 2009 to 2015 on inclusion of children with disabilities in physical education according to the PRISMA guidelines. We have used a stakeholder approach as a framework for organizing and discussing the results. The searches yielded 535 studies, of which 112 were included. The systematic review outlines which stakeholder perspectives received the most attention, the main themes and findings, the methodological trends that governed the research contribution, and the country of data collection. The main findings indicated that perspectives of pre- and in-service teachers and studies of attitudes still dominate the research contributions. The strengths and limitations of the research conducted to date highlight that several other perspectives need to be discussed. Especially important is seeking information from children with disabilities themselves. Other barriers and facilitators perceived by those actively involved in the inclusion process need to be sought.

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Anne-Mette Bredahl

The experience of participation in physical activity was explored in a qualitative study with twenty Norwegian adults with physical and visual disabilities. The interviews showed that more than 75% of negative experiences reported in this study originated from physical education (PE), suggesting that this was a particularly challenging arena. The negative experiences were centered in these common themes: experiences of not being included, experiences of failing, and experiences of not being listened to. The interviews were analyzed applying an existential-phenomenological approach. The participants with relatively minor degrees of disability and with the least visible disabilities were the ones who most often reported negative experiences regarding PE. This suggests the experiences were not generated solely by the actual physical or sensory limitations, but equally by how well the participants’ challenges were understood by their teachers and to what degree adaptations were implemented.

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Samantha J. Downs, Stuart J. Fairclough, Zoe R. Knowles and Lynne M. Boddy

The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity (PA) patterns of youth with intellectual disabilities (ID). PA was monitored for 7 days in 70 participants, 5–15 years old, using accelerometers. There were 32 participants included in the final analysis. Habitual PA and the number of continuous bouts accrued for a range of bout lengths (5–600 s) for light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) PA were calculated. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess differences in the number of continuous bouts by sex, age, and ID group and between week and weekend days. Participants exhibited short sporadic bursts of activity. The number of continuous bouts decreased as the intensity and duration increased. Few differences in PA patterns were reported by sex, ID group, and age group and between week and weekend days, possibly due to the generally low PA levels in this population.