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Roberta Gaspar, Natalia Padula, Tatiana B. Freitas, João P.J. de Oliveira, and Camila Torriani-Pasin

of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) developed by the World Health Organization constitutes a useful framework for understanding the complex interaction between the various factors that may affect the performance of activities and participation, including barriers for community-based skills

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Rosanna Gilderthorp, Jan Burns, and Fergal Jones

the International Paralympic Committee model of sports classification and that of the World Health Organization, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health ( WHO-ICF, 2002 ). The WHO-ICF is a multipurpose classification system that provides a common language and conceptual

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Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Joonkoo Yun, Jooyeon Jin, Jeffrey A. McCubbin, and Robert W. Motl

thinking of scholars from the humanities and the social and behavioral sciences who stress the environmental determinants of disability. Other researchers have been endorsing the complexity of integrated models such as the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) by the

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Juliana S. Oliveira, Leanne Hassett, Catherine Sherrington, Elisabeth Ramsay, Catherine Kirkham, Shona Manning, and Anne Tiedemann

into components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF): body functions, structures, activities, and participation. The ICF ( World Health Organization, 2001 ) is a biopsychosocial framework that incorporates interaction between the health condition, body

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Brett D. Tarca, Thomas P. Wycherley, Paul Bennett, Anthony Meade, and Katia E. Ferrar

) were included. Modifiable physical factors (predictor variables) were defined as being potentially modifiable via an exercise program and would largely fall into the body function and structure impairment category of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. 12 As there

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Cecilia Winberg, Gunilla Carlsson, Christina Brogårdh, and Jan Lexell

Maintaining regular physical activity (PA) can be challenging for persons with late effects of polio. This qualitative study of ambulatory persons with late effects of polio explored their perceptions of PA, as well as facilitators of and barriers to PA. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 persons and analyzed with content analysis using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework. The participants described positive perceptions of PA and its health benefits. PA was used to prevent further decline in functioning, and the type and frequency of activities had changed over time. Past experiences and personal characteristics impacted PA. Support from close relatives, knowledgeable health care professionals, mobility devices, and accessible environments facilitated PA, whereas impairments, inaccessible environments, and cold weather were the main barriers. To perform PA regularly, persons with late effects of polio may benefit from individualized advice based on their disability and personal and environmental factors.

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Sean M. Tweedy

Development of a unified classification system to replace four of the systems currently used in disability athletics (i.e., track and field) has been widely advocated. The definition and purpose of classification, underpinned by taxonomic principles and collectively endorsed by relevant disability sport organizations, have not been developed but are required for successful implementation of a unified system. It is posited that the International classification of functioning, disability, and health (ICF), published by the World Health Organization (2001), and current disability athletics systems are, fundamentally, classifications of the functioning and disability associated with health conditions and are highly interrelated. A rationale for basing a unified disability athletics system on ICF is established. Following taxonomic analysis of the current systems, the definition and purpose of a unified disability athletics classification are proposed and discussed. The proposed taxonomic framework and definitions have implications for other disability sport classification systems.

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Kwok Ng

classifications related to adapted physical activity (APA). The World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) has been described as the common language for functioning and disabilities, and it fits into the family of international classifications. In short

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Alexandra F. DeJong * L. Colby Mangum * Jacob E. Resch * Susan A. Saliba * 28 5 494 504 10.1123/jsr.2017-0336 jsr.2017-0336 SYSTEMATIC REVIEW Physical Exercise for Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury: Systematic Review Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health

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Kwok Ng, Jorma Tynjälä, Dagmar Sigmundová, Lilly Augustine, Mariane Sentenac, Pauli Rintala, and Jo Inchley

International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health ( WHO, 2001 ), people may experience disability because of the interaction between health conditions and contextual factors, thus influencing the child’s ability to participate in various activities including PA. Common barriers to participation