Efforts to integrate and exclude disabled people in mainstream settings raise questions about the appropriateness of integration. This paper explores problematic aspects of the integration of disabled and able-bodied people in the mainstream, and structural conditions affecting the quality of such integration. In particular, it uses a case study of a partially sighted boy’s experiences in different mainstream sport settings to show how integration efforts can be complicated by the ambiguity of an invisible impairment, by the pressures on disabled persons and their families to ignore or deny impairment and disability, and by a mismatching of structural aspects of sports and the abilities of participants with disabilities.
Flávia Cavalcante Monteiro Melo, Kátia Kamila Félix de Lima, Ana Paula Knackfuss Freitas Silveira, Kesley Pablo Morais de Azevedo, Isis Kelly dos Santos, Humberto Jefferson de Medeiros, José Carlos Leitão and Maria Irany Knackfuss
Context: Physical training improves the strength of upper limbs, contributing directly to the performance of activities of daily life, confirming one more time that the strengthened muscle is imperative for a rapid rehabilitation. Objective: To investigate the scientific implications of the impact of physical training on the strength of the upper limbs of people with paraplegias. Evidence Acquisition: The search strategy with truncations and Boolean operator was defined as: (spinal cord inju* OR traumatic myelopat* OR paraplegi*) AND (physical exercise OR strength training OR resisted training) AND (upper limb* OR arm OR armrest), for all of the databases. There were included experimental and quasi-experimental studies, published in the English language and with the complete text available, with at least 1 physical exercise that worked with the strength of the upper limbs. Two independent evaluators extracted from each article data on study characteristics (publishing year, country of origin, and study design), of the subjects (gender and age), and of the disability (level of lesion and cause). Evidence Synthesis: Seven articles were included in the systematic revision. The procedure used the most for measuring the maximum strength was the 1-repetition maximum test, followed by the isokinetic dynamometer and Quantitative Muscle Testing System. Furthermore, the most commonly associated variables in the included studies were pain in the shoulder, cardiorespiratory capacity, and functionality, respectively. The results showed that all of the variables improved because of the training. Conclusions: The training improved the strength, the functionality, and reduced the pain in the shoulder of the people with paraplegia.
Howard L. Nixon II
Despite the stigma usually attached to disabled people, and the attendant difficulty in picturing disabled people in “normal” societal roles interacting and competing with nondisabled people, a mandate for integrating disabled and nondisabled people in all areas of society has been thrust upon Americans during the past decade through judicial, legal, and social pressures and political action. This paper focuses on the appropriate integration of disabled and nondisabled people in sport. It considers some potentially salient personal attribute and background parameters (i.e., type and severity of disability and amount of sports background) and sports structure parameters (i.e., type of sport, amount of disability adaptation, and degree of competition) that could affect the extent to which integration efforts in sport result in genuine integration and a reduction in the stigmatization and handicapped minority status of disabled people. It is hoped that this paper, and the general hypotheses it proposes about appropriate integration, will serve to guide future research and informed action in program planning and implementation aimed at integrating disabled and nondisabled people in sport.
Emma V. Richardson, Brett Smith and Anthony Papathomas
Using a dialogical narrative approach, we explored how disabled people made sense of their gym experiences as part of a peer group. Interviews were conducted with 18 disabled people (10 men and 8 women, aged 23–60) who had experience exercising in the gym as part of a group. Data were rigorously analyzed using a dialogical narrative analysis. Within their peer group, participants crafted a collective story that they used to resist disablism in the gym. The dialogical components of the collective story functioned to (a) validate participants’ experiences of oppression in the gym, (b) forge an unspoken understanding with peers, (c) craft a more affirmative identity, and (d) instill a sense of empowerment in participants so that they can tell their own story. This study extends knowledge in the field of exercise and disability by showing that despite the oppression disabled people experienced in the gym, they can create a collective story, which is useful for helping to promote and sustain exercise in this space.
The 1980s and 1990s witnessed the emergence of disability sport in China and a flurry of state-sanctioned propaganda on Chinese disabled people competing in national and international sporting events. This phenomenon and the discourses surrounding it warrant further inquiry. This paper analyzes a selection of state propaganda with a view to understanding dominant state constructions of disability and sport in contemporary China. This is done with reference to recent disability policy and legislation in China, the emergence of Western-style sport in China and the historical development of state discourses of body, nation, and sport.
Nicola J. Hodges, Sheri J. Cunningham, James Lyons, Tracey L. Kerr and Digby Elliott
Frith and Frith (1974) suggested that adults with Down syndrome have difficulty planning goal-directed movements and therefore are more reliant on feedback than other mentally disabled people. The purpose of the study was to examine this hypothesis directly through the manipulation of visual feedback. Twelve adults with Down syndrome, 12 mentally disabled adults without Down syndrome, and 12 nondisabled adults performed simple aiming movements to targets of three different diameters. While the target was always visible, on half the trial blocks vision of the movement was occluded upon response initiation. Subjects with Down syndrome exhibited longer movement times than other subjects, regardless of vision condition. In terms of target-aiming consistency, subjects with Down syndrome were actually less affected by the elimination of visual feedback than subjects in the other mentally disabled group. While adults with mental disabilities appear to be more reliant on visual feedback for the control of goal-directed movement, this dependence is not a specific characteristic of Down syndrome.
Danielle Peers, Timothy Konoval and Rebecca Marsh Naturkach
of Canada’s athletics organizations? and How are disability inclusion, exclusion, and marginalization enacted through such discourses? We have argued, herein, that if we care about addressing the widespread exclusion of disabled people from meaningful sporting opportunities, we must analyze
Damian Haslett, Javier Monforte, Inhyang Choi and Brett Smith
believe have facilitated the oppression of disabled people (see Braye, 2017 ; Pearson & Trevisan, 2015 ). In addition, disability activists have disputed the IPC’s claims regarding how much Para sport has contributed to improving the lives of disabled people beyond sport (see Brittain & Beacom, 2016
ways that are beneficial to disabled people, their allies, and associated practitioners? In short, what is in a label? In this brief provocation, I want to explore the disability labels through recourse to three perspectives that have much to say about categorization, disability, and the human
Donna L. Goodwin and Amanda Ebert
single activity focused, and target children and youth aged 5–18 years, are integral to healthy child development and daily physical activity requirements ( Beets et al., 2010 ). There are a wide variety of community-based physical activity and fitness programs available, yet disabled people 1 are