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Asuman Saltan and Handan Ankarali

Objective:

To compare classification levels and trunk stabilization of wheelchair basketball players and to identify their norm values of trunk balance.

Participants:

113 wheelchair basketball players in the super and first Turkish leagues.

Interventions:

A modified Wheelchair Skills Test (WST) (version 4.1) was used to evaluate trunk stabilization. Two skills were chosen that correspond to the stationary wheelie activity in WST, the 30-s stationary wheelie and stationary wheelie in 180°.

Main Outcome Measure:

There are no statistical differences between WST rates and point means.

Results:

The skills and success and safety rates of the players with 1.5 points (51.9%, 44.4%) were lower than those of the players with 1.0 point (70%, 66.7%). In players with 2.5 and 2.0 points, the most successful and safest percentage values were 78.6%, 78.6% and 82.1%, 75%.

Conclusions:

Although it is expected that trunk stabilization would be better in players with high points, in our study we encountered conflicting results between the points and sitting balance or trunk stabilization. Our study supports the studies in the literature suggesting modifications in the functional-classification system.

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Mário A.M. Simim, Marco Túlio de Mello, Bruno V.C. Silva, Dayane F. Rodrigues, João Paulo P. Rosa, Bruno Pena Couto and Andressa da Silva

The aim of this review was to identify the main variables for load monitoring in training and competition situations in wheelchair sports. Studies were identified from a systematic search of three databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and SportDiscuss), with search phrases constructed from MeSH terms, alone or in combination, limited to English-language literature, and published up to January 2016. Our main findings were that variables related to external load (distance, speed, and duration) are used to monitor load in competition. In training situations, researchers have used variables related to internal load (heart rate and VO2); in both training and competition situations, researchers used internal load measurements (training impulse and ratings of perceived exertion). We conclude that the main variables for load monitoring in competitive situations were distance, speed, and duration, whereas the variables for training situations were heart rate, VO2, training impulse, and ratings of perceived exertion.

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Michael J. Asken

This paper discusses the delivery of sport psychology services to physically challenged (disabled) athletes. It begins with a description of the current status of athletic competition for physically disabled individuals. Commonalities in the sports experience of able-bodied and physically disabled athletes are addressed. Unique issues that must be considered for effective sport psychology consultations with disabled athletes are discussed. These include the background of physical and psychological trauma, altered physiological responses and medical problems, complexities in motivation to compete, unique performance problems, and the structure and organization of disabled sports. The article concludes with the effects of the social environment of disabled sports on the consultation process.

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James V. Mastro, Allen W. Burton, Marjorie Rosendahl and Claudine Sherrill

Hierarchies of preference by elite athletes with impairments toward other athletes with impairments were examined by administering the Athletes With Impairments Attitude Survey (AWIAS) to 138 members of the United States Disabled Sports Team as they were traveling to the 1992 Paralympic Games. The AWIAS uses 12 statements concerning social and sport relationships to measure social distance from a particular impairment group. Five groups of athletes participated—athletes with amputations, cerebral palsy, dwarfism or les autres, paraplegia or quadriplegia, and visual impairment—with each participant filling out a separate survey for the four impairment groups other than his or her own. For all groups combined, the participants’ responses toward other impairment groups, ordered from most to least favorable attitudes, were amputations, les autres, para/quadriplegia, visual impairment, and cerebral palsy. The preference hierarchies for individual groups were very similar to this overall pattern.

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Gabriella McLoughlin, Courtney Weisman Fecske, Yvette Castaneda, Candace Gwin and Kim Graber

), which is significantly less than those without physical disabilities ( Disabled Sports USA, 2009 ). Adapted physical activity in today’s context is conceived as “adaptations that could facilitate physical activity across a wide range of individual differences” ( Reid, 2003 , p. 22). Reid ( 2003 ) argued

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Wojciech Jedziniak, Piotr Lesiakowski and Teresa Zwierko

–cognitive processing performed by athletes with regard to the requirements of disabled sports and highlight the importance of a laboratory assessment of saccadic eye movements in sport contexts. References Aguiar , S.A. , Polastri , P.F. , Godoi , D. , Moraes

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Karin Lobenius-Palmér, Birgitta Sjöqvist, Anita Hurtig-Wennlöf and Lars-Olov Lundqvist

.A. , Morgan , D. , Pitetti , K.H. , & Roberts , S.O. ( 2000 ). Physical activity for the chronically ill and disabled . Sports Medicine, 30 , 207 – 219 . PubMed doi:10.2165/00007256-200030030-00005 10.2165/00007256-200030030-00005 Edwardson , C.L. , & Gorely , T. ( 2010 ). Epoch length and its

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Leanne Norman

years. The participants self-reported their ethnicities as White British and all were non-disabled, a reflection of the lack of diversity, beyond just gender, amongst the UK coaching workforce in which 97% self-report as White and in which 92% define themselves as non-disabled ( Sports Coach UK, 2012