, it is impossible for knowledge not to engender power” ( Faubion, 2002 , p. xv). Foucault used the category of discipline to extend the perception of how modern power operates to carefully construct and form subjectivities ( Cole, Giardina, & Andrews, 2004 ) through surveillance and self
Lauren Downham and Christopher Cushion
In this paper I view the history of kinesiology in America through the lens of a shifting academic landscape where physical culture and building acted upon each other to reflect emergent views concerning the nature of training in physical education and scientific developments around human movement. It is also an organizational history that has been largely lived in the gymnasium and the laboratory from its inception in the late nineteenth century to its current arrangements in the academy. Historians have referred to this in appropriately embodied terms as the head and the heart of physical education, and of course the impact of gender, class, and race was ever present. I conclude that the profession/discipline conundrum in kinesiology that has ebbed and flowed in the shifting spaces and carefully organized places of the academy has not gone away in the twenty-first century and that the complexities of today’s training require more fertile and flexible collaborative approaches in research, teaching, and professional training.
This study examined the relationship among goal orientations, perceived motivation climate, self-reported discipline, reasons for discipline, and perceived teacher’s strategies to sustain discipline in physical education lessons. Six hundred and seventy-four students responded on questionnaires assessing the aforementioned variables. Task orientation was positively associated with self-determined reasons for discipline. The perception of a task-involving climate was positively related to perceptions of teaching strategies promoting reasons for discipline determined by the students. Task-involvement and self-determined reasons for being disciplined corresponded to students’ reported discipline in the lesson. On the contrary, the perception of an ego-involving climate was linked with perceived teaching strategies promoting an external locus of causality in the lesson. The results imply that teachers who try to strengthen the task orientation of students and help them adopt more self-determined reasons for being disciplined will have more orderly classes.
Clayton R. Kuklick and Brian T. Gearity
damaged bodies. Both works drew heavily upon Foucault’s ( 1977a ) Discipline and Punish , which also provides the theoretical framework guiding the current study, so we turn to a review of those major concepts and how Foucault came to theorize them. Central to Foucault’s work, or oeuvre , was to show
disciplines (e.g., coaching) who are not interested in becoming sport psychologists. In conclusion, based on these numbers I find it puzzling how anyone can categorize the sport psychology profession as healthy or recommend it, without many reservations and qualifications, to graduate students. In the next
Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli, and Hans-Christer Holmberg
performance in connection with sport competitions of varying duration is called for. In the present review, we summarize scientific knowledge concerning sex differences in world-record performance and the influence of sport discipline and competition duration. Furthermore, we discuss how physiological factors
The current malaise over sport management’s place and future as an academic discipline provides a useful basis for envisioning the needs and directions for the field’s growth and development. The field’s development requires two complementary streams of research: one that tests the relevance and application of theories derived from other disciplines, and one that is grounded in sport phenomena. The legitimations that sport advocates advance for sport’s place on public agendas are useful starting points for research that is sport focused. The fi ve most common current legitimations for sport are health, salubrious socialization, economic development, community development, and national pride. The value of sport in each case depends on the ways that sport is managed. Factors that facilitate and that inhibit optimization of sport’s contribution to each must be identified and probed. Identifying and probing those factors will be aided by research that confronts popular beliefs about sport, and by research that explores sport’s links to other economic sectors. The resulting research agenda will foster development of a distinctive sport management discipline.
Mark R. Lafave, Nicholas G. Mohtadi, and Denise S. Chan
Edited by Gary Wilkerson
Evaluation of musculoskeletal injuries requires special knowledge and skills that are shared by different health professions, but the process used to establish a diagnosis is not necessarily the same. Medicine has employed the objective structured clinical exams (OSCE) to assess clinical competence. The performances of two Canadian athletic therapists were assessed by two different methods for assessment of clinical competence in the evaluation of knee injuries. On the basis of existing standards, both of the athletic therapists would have passed the examination using the Standardized Orthopedic Assessment Tool currently used to assess the clinical competence of athletic therapy students, but both would have failed using the Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine OSCE for sport medicine physicians. The failure could be because the performances of only two subjects were assessed, but it could also be because different constructs are represented by the two methods. If we truly want to provide patient-centered care, it should be important to have similar standards, regardless of the clinician’s professional discipline.
Hal A. Lawson and R. Scott Kretchmar
Debates-as-battles have characterized the histories of physical education and kinesiology. This colorful part of the field’s history was characterized by leaders’ narrow, rigid views, and it paved the way for divisiveness, excessive specialization, and fragmentation. Today’s challenge is to seek common purpose via stewardship-oriented dialogue, and it requires a return to first order questions regarding purposes, ethics, values, moral imperatives, and social responsibilities. These questions are especially timely insofar as kinesiology risks running on a kind of automatic pilot, seemingly driven by faculty self-interests and buffered from consequential changes in university environments and societal contexts. A revisionist history of kinesiology’s origins and development suggests that it can be refashioned as a helping discipline, one that combines rigor, relevance, and altruism. It gives rise to generative questions regarding what a 21st century discipline prioritizes and does, and it opens opportunity pathways for crossing boundaries and bridging divides. Three sets of conclusions illuminate unrealized possibilities for a vibrant, holistic kinesiology—a renewed discipline that is fit for purpose in 21st century contexts.
The concept of discipline traditionally suggests the image of a sterilization of life. Processes of domination, they prohibit, they forbid, they are supposed to block initiatives and forces, and they shape the body into passivity. A conception of physical exercise can emerge from these ideas, one regarding the docility of the body. But the process of rendering the body docile is not possible without a liberation of forces, without a solicitation of initiatives. It is then possible to look at physical exercise as a paradox, that is, a process of subjugation through autonomization. It is possible to read Foucault in a way that emphasizes what the author has suggested in Discipline and Punish, that is, a “’positive economy.” It is this feature of Foucault’s theory that is developed in this article.