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Jessica Barrett, Alicia Pike, and Stephanie Mazerolle

Key Points ▸ Though their relationships with student-athletes and coaches were often harmonious, participants experienced sexism and discrimination from the time they were students through their professional careers. ▸ Athletic trainers identified themselves as considerate, helpful, self

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Zachary McCarver, Shelby Anderson, Justine Vosloo, and Sebastian Harenberg

held 39.8% of Division I head coaching jobs of women’s teams and 4.7% of coaching jobs of men’s teams. It is unclear, however, if the profession of SEP suffers from a similar underrepresentation of minorities. Discrimination is more likely to occur in workplaces lacking diversity (Equal Employment

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Nicholas M. Watanabe, Grace Yan, Brian P. Soebbing, and Ann Pegoraro

The subject of discrimination and its complicated patterns in sport have been acutely observed and studied by many scholars from a variety of frameworks. Specifically, subjects of discrimination deal with unequal treatment alongside issues including sport participation ( Cunningham, Sartore

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Janet S. Fink

In this article, from the 2015 Earle F. Zeigler Lecture Award presented in Ottawa, Canada, I hope to create greater awareness of how sexism remains uncontested in sport. I highlight the persistence of sexism in sport and note the form of sexism is different from that found in other industries. I also argue that sexism is treated quite differently than other types of discrimination in sport and provide examples of its impact. I suggest that adapting Shaw and Frisby’s (2006) alternative frame of gender equity is necessary for real change to occur and call on all NASSM members as researchers, teachers, or participants to take action to eradicate sexism in sport.

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Parbudyal Singh, Allen Sack, and Ronald Dick

Over the last three decades, Major League Baseball has often served as a natural setting for the study of discrimination in the workforce. Much of this research has found that salary discrimination has all but disappeared in Major League Baseball. However, an issue that remains unresolved is whether salary discrimination can be found among players who are not eligible for free agency. The important theoretical question raised here is whether market constraints on competition for labor encourage wage discrimination. The purpose of this study was to examine this issue by using recent data. Our results suggest that race is not a significant predictor of compensation, even among players who are not eligible for free agency. Two interpretations of these findings are presented, as well as implications for social policy.

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Kevin J. Christiano

A series of multiple regression analyses using the most recent publicly available data on the salaries of veteran hitters in major league baseball uncovers little evidence of economic discrimination by race. Comparisons of unstandardized regression coefficients for player variables, by race and position, reveal a number of instances of inequality. However, these inequalities do not occur consistently with respect to the same type of performance, nor do they always place blacks at a disadvantage. Furthermore, blacks who do not enjoy the market power granted to players by the advent of free agency are not uniformly victimized by discrimination in salaries. Instead, the newest evidence suggests that signs of salary discrimination that were found in data on hitters from the 1977 season are not manifest 10 years later.

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Kevin J. Christiano

Using data on the salaries of 212 nonpitchers appearing in team lineups on major league baseball’s 1977 Opening Day, this article explores how rewards to veteran professionals are influenced by race. Multiple regression analyses and separate comparisons of regression coefficients for returns to performances by blacks and by whites reveal a single indication of salary discrimination against blacks. White infielders are apparently paid more for each home run they hit than are their black counterparts.

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Aura Goldman and Misia Gervis

experiences that women have working in this environment. The survey reported that nearly twice as many women experience gender discrimination in their workplace: 38% of women and 21% of men. Similarly, 72% of men stated that they felt that their workplace was fair and equitable to both genders, whereas only

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Michael A. Odio, Patty Raube Keller, and Dana Drew Shaw

continues to be found through research across disciplines ( Binder, Baguley, Crook, & Miller, 2015 ; DeLuca & Braunstein-Minkove, 2016 ; Gault, Leach, Duey, & Benzing, 2018 ), a growing body of literature has raised several issues regarding the treatment of interns, including sex-based discrimination and

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Marja Kokkonen

of discrimination ( Denison & Kitchen, 2015 ; FRA, 2014a , 2014b ; Norman, 2012 , 2013 ; Symons, O’Sullivan, & Polman, 2017 ; Symons, Sbaraglia, Hillier, & Mitchell, 2010 ). Negative emotions, such as sadness, anger, distress or shame; negative engagement with sports (i.e., disliking, avoiding