Key Points ▸ Though their relationships with student-athletes and coaches were often harmonious, participants experienced sexism and discrimination from the time they were students through their professional careers. ▸ Athletic trainers identified themselves as considerate, helpful, self
Jessica Barrett, Alicia Pike and Stephanie Mazerolle
Zachary McCarver, Shelby Anderson, Justine Vosloo and Sebastian Harenberg
held 39.8% of Division I head coaching jobs of women’s teams and 4.7% of coaching jobs of men’s teams. It is unclear, however, if the profession of SEP suffers from a similar underrepresentation of minorities. Discrimination is more likely to occur in workplaces lacking diversity (Equal Employment
Nicholas M. Watanabe, Grace Yan, Brian P. Soebbing and Ann Pegoraro
The subject of discrimination and its complicated patterns in sport have been acutely observed and studied by many scholars from a variety of frameworks. Specifically, subjects of discrimination deal with unequal treatment alongside issues including sport participation ( Cunningham, Sartore
Parbudyal Singh, Allen Sack and Ronald Dick
Over the last three decades, Major League Baseball has often served as a natural setting for the study of discrimination in the workforce. Much of this research has found that salary discrimination has all but disappeared in Major League Baseball. However, an issue that remains unresolved is whether salary discrimination can be found among players who are not eligible for free agency. The important theoretical question raised here is whether market constraints on competition for labor encourage wage discrimination. The purpose of this study was to examine this issue by using recent data. Our results suggest that race is not a significant predictor of compensation, even among players who are not eligible for free agency. Two interpretations of these findings are presented, as well as implications for social policy.
Kevin J. Christiano
A series of multiple regression analyses using the most recent publicly available data on the salaries of veteran hitters in major league baseball uncovers little evidence of economic discrimination by race. Comparisons of unstandardized regression coefficients for player variables, by race and position, reveal a number of instances of inequality. However, these inequalities do not occur consistently with respect to the same type of performance, nor do they always place blacks at a disadvantage. Furthermore, blacks who do not enjoy the market power granted to players by the advent of free agency are not uniformly victimized by discrimination in salaries. Instead, the newest evidence suggests that signs of salary discrimination that were found in data on hitters from the 1977 season are not manifest 10 years later.
Kevin J. Christiano
Using data on the salaries of 212 nonpitchers appearing in team lineups on major league baseball’s 1977 Opening Day, this article explores how rewards to veteran professionals are influenced by race. Multiple regression analyses and separate comparisons of regression coefficients for returns to performances by blacks and by whites reveal a single indication of salary discrimination against blacks. White infielders are apparently paid more for each home run they hit than are their black counterparts.
Janet S. Fink
In this article, from the 2015 Earle F. Zeigler Lecture Award presented in Ottawa, Canada, I hope to create greater awareness of how sexism remains uncontested in sport. I highlight the persistence of sexism in sport and note the form of sexism is different from that found in other industries. I also argue that sexism is treated quite differently than other types of discrimination in sport and provide examples of its impact. I suggest that adapting Shaw and Frisby’s (2006) alternative frame of gender equity is necessary for real change to occur and call on all NASSM members as researchers, teachers, or participants to take action to eradicate sexism in sport.
Michael A. Odio, Patty Raube Keller and Dana Drew Shaw
continues to be found through research across disciplines ( Binder, Baguley, Crook, & Miller, 2015 ; DeLuca & Braunstein-Minkove, 2016 ; Gault, Leach, Duey, & Benzing, 2018 ), a growing body of literature has raised several issues regarding the treatment of interns, including sex-based discrimination and
Melanie L. Sartore and George B. Cunningham
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of weight discrimination on perceived attributions, person–job fit, and hiring recommendations. Three experiments were undertaken to investigate these issues with people applying for positions in fitness organizations (i.e., aerobics instructor and personal trainer). In all three studies qualified people who were overweight, relative to their qualified and sometimes unqualified thin counterparts, were perceived to have less desirable attributes (e.g., lazy), were thought to be a poorer fit for the position, and were less likely to receive a hiring recommendation. These relationships were influenced by applicant expertise and applicant sex in some cases. Implications for the fitness industry are discussed.
French Canadians in professional ice hockey perform generally better than English Canadian or American players. This is particularly clear at the position of defenseman. Stacking in the National Hockey League (NHL) is also observed, with very few French Canadians playing defense. Four theses are presented to explain these two phenomena. The first three theses—based on differences in the style of play, the cultural costs of moving to an NHL city, and the proficiency of the language of work (English)—all incorporate convincing arguments but fail to predict further established facts. Hiring discrimination best explains all of the facts that have been gathered by students of ice hockey. Except in the case of defensemen, little or no salary discrimination against Francophones could be identified, although their pay is determined differently. The collection of a wide variety of data suggests that favoritism by scouts substantially affects the outcome of hiring decisions, especially at the positions for which assessment is highly uncertain and subjective, that is, the position of defense.