, it is essential for chronic disease prevention advocates to understand policy influencers’ preferences for the acceptability of various means in promoting population-level physical activity. Similarly, it is essential that advocates further understand preferences for the acceptability of
Jennifer Ann McGetrick, Krystyna Kongats, Kim D. Raine, Corinne Voyer and Candace I.J. Nykiforuk
Kenneth E. Powell, Abby C. King, David M. Buchner, Wayne W. Campbell, Loretta DiPietro, Kirk I. Erickson, Charles H. Hillman, John M. Jakicic, Kathleen F. Janz, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William E. Kraus, Richard F. Macko, David X. Marquez, Anne McTiernan, Russell R. Pate, Linda S. Pescatello and Melicia C. Whitt-Glover
, MD (Division of Preventive Science, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion); Katrina L. Piercy, PhD (Physical Activity and Nutrition Advisor, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion); Rachel M. Ballard, MD (Office of Disease Prevention, National Institutes of Health); Janet E
Fumi Hirayama, Andy H. Lee and Tetsuo Hiramatsu
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Because only 20% of cigarette smokers develop COPD, certain environmental and lifestyle factors may protect against the disease development.
To investigate the relationship between life-long physical activity involvement and the COPD risk, a case-control study was conducted in central Japan. A total of 278 eligible patients (244 men and 34 women) age 50 to 75 years were referred by respiratory physicians, while 335 controls (267 men and 68 women) were recruited from the community. All participants underwent spirometric measurements of lung function. Information on demographic and lifestyle characteristics was obtained by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire.
Older adults who remained physically active had better lung function than others inactive over the life course. The COPD patients were found to be less active than their healthy counterparts. Significant reductions in risk of COPD and breathlessness were evident by being active life-long, with adjusted odds ratio 0.59 (95% CI 0.36−0.97) and 0.56 (95% CI 0.36−0.88), respectively.
The study suggested an inverse association between life-long physical activity and the risk of COPD and breathlessness. Promotion of physical activity to prevent this major disease should be encouraged.
Stanley Sai Chuen Hui and James R. Morrow Jr.
In this study, a questionnaire translated from a national survey on physical activity of 2,002 U.S. adults (Morrow, Jackson. Bazzarre. Milne, & Blair, 1999) was adopted to survey a random sample of 812 Chinese adults through a city wide telephone interview. The respondents demonstrated poor awareness of the role of physical activity in disease prevention. Older adults possessed poorer knowledge of physical activity but higher activity levels than their younger counterparts did. Results indicated that the level and knowledge of physical activity of Chinese adults are related to age. The perceived importance of physical activity was the lowest among other health behaviors. Age, educational level, and knowledge of appropriate exercise prescription to achieve health benefits were factors used to discriminate among sedentary, somewhat active, and physically active groups. The importance of intervention programs to raise the physical activity level and knowledge of Chinese adults was demonstrated by this study.
The concept that participation in exercise/physical activity reduces the risk for a host of chronic diseases is undisputed. Along with adaptations to habitual activity, each bout of exercise induces beneficial changes that last for a finite period of time, requiring subsequent exercise bouts to sustain the benefits. In this respect, exercise/physical activity is similar to other “medications” and the idea of “Exercise as Medicine” is becoming embedded in the popular lexicon. Like other medications, exercise has an optimal dose and frequency of application specific to each health outcome, as well as interactions with food and other medications. Using the prevention of type-2 diabetes as an exemplar, the application of exercise/physical activity as a medication for metabolic “rehabilitation” is considered in these terms. Some recommendations that are specific to diabetes prevention emerge, showing the process by which exercise can be prescribed to achieve health goals tailored to individual disease prevention outcomes.
J. Mark Davis, Catherine J. Carlstedt, Stephen Chen, Martin D. Carmichael and E. Angela Murphy
Quercetin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid substance present in a variety of food plants, has been shown in vitro and in animal studies to have widespread health and performance benefits resulting from a combination of biological properties, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as the ability to increase mitochondrial biogenesis. Little is known about these effects in humans, however, especially with respect to exercise performance. The authors determined whether quercetin ingestion would enhance maximal aerobic capacity and delay fatigue during prolonged exercise in healthy but untrained participants. Twelve volunteers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (a) 500 mg of quercetin twice daily dissolved in vitamin-enriched Tang or (b) a nondistinguishable placebo (Tang). Baseline VO2max and bike-ride times to fatigue were established. Treatments were administered for a period of 7 days using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study design. After treatment both VO2max and ride time to fatigue were determined. Seven days of quercetin feedings were associated with a modest increase in VO2max (3.9% vs. placebo; p < .05) along with a substantial (13.2%) increase in ride time to fatigue (p < .05). These data suggest that as little as 7 days of quercetin supplementation can increase endurance without exercise training in untrained participants. These benefits of quercetin may have important implications for enhancement of athletic and military performance. This apparent increase in fitness without exercise training may have implications beyond that of performance enhancement to health promotion and disease prevention.
Ai Shibata, Koichiro Oka, Yoshio Nakamura and Isao Muraoka
Although engaging in the recommended amount of physical activity provides disease-prevention benefits, few studies have examined the proportion and correlates of meeting the Japanese physical activity recommendation. This study investigated the prevalence and demographic correlates of attaining the recommended value on the Exercise and Physical Activity Reference for Health Promotion 2006.
Data were analyzed for 5177 Japanese adults who took an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and 6 possible demographic correlates were obtained. Respondents were divided into 3 groups—recommended, insufficient, and inactive—according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used.
Overall, 26.6% of respondents were physically active according to the recommendation criterion. Gender, employment status, age, marital status, and educational level were statistically significant. In men, being employed and in women, being 30 to 39 years of age were negatively associated with the attainment of the recommendation. Being male, being a married woman, and having a college education or higher for women were positively correlated with the attainment of the recommendation.
Different associations of demographic correlates with the physical activity recommendation for men and women were found, suggesting that gender-specific strategies for targeting the population or specific interventions might be more effective in promoting physical activity among Japanese adults.
Palma ChiMón, Francisco B. Ortega, Jonatan R. Ruiz, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, David Martínez-Gómez, Germán Vicente-Rodriguez, Kurt Widhalm, Dénes Molnar, Frédéric Gottrand, Marcela González-Gross, Dianne S. Ward, Luis A. Moreno, Manuel J. Castillo and Michael Sjöström
Chillón and Ruiz are with the Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Granada, Spain. Chillón and Ward are with the Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Ortega, Ruiz and Sjöström are with the Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden. Ortega and Castillo are with the Department of Medical Physiology, University of Granada, Spain. De Bourdeaudhuij is with the Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium. Martínez-Gómez is with the Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Spain. Vicente-Rodríguez and Moreno are with Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development (GENUD) Research Group, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain. Widhalm is with the Department of Paediatrics, Division of Clinical Nutrition, Medical University of Vienna, Austria. Molnar is with the Deprtment of Paediatrics, Clinical Center, University of Pécs, Hungary. Gottrand is with Inserm U995, University Lille2 and CIC-9301-CH&U-Inserm, University Hospital of Lille, France. González-Gross is with the Department of Health and Human Performance, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
William L. Haskell
For the scientific domain of physical activity and public health research to advance its agenda of health promotion and disease prevention continued development of measurement methodologies is essential. Over the past 50 years most data supporting a favorable relationship between habitual physical activity and chronic disease morbidity and mortality have been obtained using self-report methods, including questionnaires, logs, recalls, and diaries. Many of these instruments have been shown to have reasonable validity and reliability for determining general type, amount, intensity, and bout duration, but typically do better for groups than individuals with some instruments lacking the sensitivity to detect change in activity. During the past decade the objective assessment of physical activity using accelerometer-based devices has demonstrated substantial potential, especially in documenting the pattern of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity activity throughout the day. However, these devices do not provide information on activity type, location or context. Research that combines the strengths of both self-report and objective measures has the potential to provide new insights into the benefits of physical activity and how to implement successful interventions.