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Jennifer Ann McGetrick, Krystyna Kongats, Kim D. Raine, Corinne Voyer and Candace I.J. Nykiforuk

, it is essential for chronic disease prevention advocates to understand policy influencers’ preferences for the acceptability of various means in promoting population-level physical activity. Similarly, it is essential that advocates further understand preferences for the acceptability of

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Kenneth E. Powell, Abby C. King, David M. Buchner, Wayne W. Campbell, Loretta DiPietro, Kirk I. Erickson, Charles H. Hillman, John M. Jakicic, Kathleen F. Janz, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William E. Kraus, Richard F. Macko, David X. Marquez, Anne McTiernan, Russell R. Pate, Linda S. Pescatello and Melicia C. Whitt-Glover

, MD (Division of Preventive Science, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion); Katrina L. Piercy, PhD (Physical Activity and Nutrition Advisor, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion); Rachel M. Ballard, MD (Office of Disease Prevention, National Institutes of Health); Janet E

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Fumi Hirayama, Andy H. Lee and Tetsuo Hiramatsu

Background:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Because only 20% of cigarette smokers develop COPD, certain environmental and lifestyle factors may protect against the disease development.

Methods:

To investigate the relationship between life-long physical activity involvement and the COPD risk, a case-control study was conducted in central Japan. A total of 278 eligible patients (244 men and 34 women) age 50 to 75 years were referred by respiratory physicians, while 335 controls (267 men and 68 women) were recruited from the community. All participants underwent spirometric measurements of lung function. Information on demographic and lifestyle characteristics was obtained by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire.

Results:

Older adults who remained physically active had better lung function than others inactive over the life course. The COPD patients were found to be less active than their healthy counterparts. Significant reductions in risk of COPD and breathlessness were evident by being active life-long, with adjusted odds ratio 0.59 (95% CI 0.36−0.97) and 0.56 (95% CI 0.36−0.88), respectively.

Conclusions:

The study suggested an inverse association between life-long physical activity and the risk of COPD and breathlessness. Promotion of physical activity to prevent this major disease should be encouraged.

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Katrina L. Piercy, Frances Bevington, Alison Vaux-Bjerke, Sandra Williams Hilfiker, Sean Arayasirikul and Elizabeth Y. Barnett

activity guidelines.” Therefore, when planning for the second edition of the guidelines, the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion developed a corresponding communication campaign, Move Your Way. 10 This campaign is grounded in the transtheoretical model (also known as stages of change) 11

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Frances Bevington, Katrina L. Piercy, Kate Olscamp, Sandra W. Hilfiker, Dena G. Fisher and Elizabeth Y. Barnett

toward and meeting the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) developed the Move Your Way campaign. Move Your Way is a multichannel, community-based communication campaign that provides print and online resources for consumers and health

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Barry Braun

The concept that participation in exercise/physical activity reduces the risk for a host of chronic diseases is undisputed. Along with adaptations to habitual activity, each bout of exercise induces beneficial changes that last for a finite period of time, requiring subsequent exercise bouts to sustain the benefits. In this respect, exercise/physical activity is similar to other “medications” and the idea of “Exercise as Medicine” is becoming embedded in the popular lexicon. Like other medications, exercise has an optimal dose and frequency of application specific to each health outcome, as well as interactions with food and other medications. Using the prevention of type-2 diabetes as an exemplar, the application of exercise/physical activity as a medication for metabolic “rehabilitation” is considered in these terms. Some recommendations that are specific to diabetes prevention emerge, showing the process by which exercise can be prescribed to achieve health goals tailored to individual disease prevention outcomes.

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Stanley Sai Chuen Hui and James R. Morrow Jr.

In this study, a questionnaire translated from a national survey on physical activity of 2,002 U.S. adults (Morrow, Jackson. Bazzarre. Milne, & Blair, 1999) was adopted to survey a random sample of 812 Chinese adults through a city wide telephone interview. The respondents demonstrated poor awareness of the role of physical activity in disease prevention. Older adults possessed poorer knowledge of physical activity but higher activity levels than their younger counterparts did. Results indicated that the level and knowledge of physical activity of Chinese adults are related to age. The perceived importance of physical activity was the lowest among other health behaviors. Age, educational level, and knowledge of appropriate exercise prescription to achieve health benefits were factors used to discriminate among sedentary, somewhat active, and physically active groups. The importance of intervention programs to raise the physical activity level and knowledge of Chinese adults was demonstrated by this study.

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Palma ChiMón, Francisco B. Ortega, Jonatan R. Ruiz, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, David Martínez-Gómez, Germán Vicente-Rodriguez, Kurt Widhalm, Dénes Molnar, Frédéric Gottrand, Marcela González-Gross, Dianne S. Ward, Luis A. Moreno, Manuel J. Castillo and Michael Sjöström

Chillón and Ruiz are with the Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Granada, Spain. Chillón and Ward are with the Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Ortega, Ruiz and Sjöström are with the Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden. Ortega and Castillo are with the Department of Medical Physiology, University of Granada, Spain. De Bourdeaudhuij is with the Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium. Martínez-Gómez is with the Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Spain. Vicente-Rodríguez and Moreno are with Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development (GENUD) Research Group, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain. Widhalm is with the Department of Paediatrics, Division of Clinical Nutrition, Medical University of Vienna, Austria. Molnar is with the Deprtment of Paediatrics, Clinical Center, University of Pécs, Hungary. Gottrand is with Inserm U995, University Lille2 and CIC-9301-CH&U-Inserm, University Hospital of Lille, France. González-Gross is with the Department of Health and Human Performance, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.

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William L. Haskell

For the scientific domain of physical activity and public health research to advance its agenda of health promotion and disease prevention continued development of measurement methodologies is essential. Over the past 50 years most data supporting a favorable relationship between habitual physical activity and chronic disease morbidity and mortality have been obtained using self-report methods, including questionnaires, logs, recalls, and diaries. Many of these instruments have been shown to have reasonable validity and reliability for determining general type, amount, intensity, and bout duration, but typically do better for groups than individuals with some instruments lacking the sensitivity to detect change in activity. During the past decade the objective assessment of physical activity using accelerometer-based devices has demonstrated substantial potential, especially in documenting the pattern of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity activity throughout the day. However, these devices do not provide information on activity type, location or context. Research that combines the strengths of both self-report and objective measures has the potential to provide new insights into the benefits of physical activity and how to implement successful interventions.