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What Is Behind Disordered Eating Behaviors? An Exploratory Study With Female Adolescents From Individual Esthetic and Nonesthetic Sports

Carolina Paixão, Sara Oliveira, and Cláudia Ferreira

’s own performance was also expected. This indirect relationship could lead to a greater need to present a perfect body image to others and develop disordered eating behaviors, understood as maladaptive defensive strategies used to deal with perceptions of inferiority and poor performance. Material and

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Injury and Disordered Eating Behaviors: What is the Connection for Female Professional Dancers?

Justine J. Reel, Leslie Podlog, Lindsey Hamilton, Lindsey Greviskes, Dana K. Voelker, and Cara Gray

by a choreographer to retain her principal role in the company. However, the compounded experience of severe injury coupled with disordered eating behaviors in dancers has yet to be explored. Specifically, although energy deficiency (often a result of dysfunctional eating and exercise) has been shown

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Essentials for Best Practice: Treatment Approaches for Athletes With Eating Disorders

Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney, and Riley Nickols

preserves health and minimizes deleterious effects of disordered-eating behaviors (DEBs) and EDs. In this discussion, best practices for treatment of athletes with DEBs and EDs are summarized including the structure of a multidisciplinary treatment team (MDTT) and key components of ED treatment including

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Disordered Eating Behavior, Body Image, and Energy Status of Female Student Dancers

Justine G. Robbeson, Herculina Salome Kruger, and Hattie H. Wright


Modern culture has stereotyped the female body as one that is continually getting thinner. Internalization of the ‘thin’ ideal is partly attributable to the inner ideal to be successful combined with the external pressure imposed by media and others. Many individuals attempt to achieve these ideals by behavior modification that imposes health risks.


To investigate disordered eating (DE) behavior and energy status in female student dancers.


Volunteer dancers (n = 26) aged 19.0 (18.0; 21.0) years, matched by controls (n = 26) aged 20.0 (19.0; 21.0) years were recruited. Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3) subscales, Three-factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) Cognitive Dietary Restraint (CDR) subscale, and EDI-3 Referral Form behavioral questions assessed DE behavior. Energy status was assessed with a food record and Actiheart monitor.


Dancers achieved significantly higher scores than controls in all questionnaires, namely: EDI-3 Drive for Thinness [12.0 (3.0; 19.0) vs. 4.5 (2.0; 9.0), p = .023], EDI-3 Body Dissatisfaction [16.0 (10.0; 25.0) vs. 6.5 (3.0; 14.0), p = .004], and TFEQ-CDR [9.0 (2.0; 15.0) vs. 3.0 (3.0; 7.0), p = .032]; dancers used excessive exercise to lose weight (19.2% vs. 0%, c2 = 5.53, p = .019), and had lower energy availability (24% vs. 8%, p < .05) than controls. The average energy balance (EB) was negative for both groups [dancers: EB = -3896 (-5236; -1222) vs. controls: EB = -2639 (-4744; -789) kJ/day].


Female dancers are at risk for DE behavior and many have suboptimal energy status which may be related to their quest to achieve a more desirable appearance; education on healthy weight management practices is needed.

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Coach Pressure and Disordered Eating in Female Collegiate Athletes: Is the Coach-Athlete Relationship a Mediating Factor?

Ashley Coker-Cranney and Justine J. Reel

When athletes “uncritically accept” the coaching expectations associated with their sport, negative health consequences (e.g., disordered eating behaviors, clinical eating disorders) may result. The coach’s influence on disordered eating behaviors may be a product of factors related to overconformity to the sport ethic, issues with coach communication regarding recommendations for weight management, and the strength of the coach-athlete relationship. The present study investigated perceived weight-related coach pressure, the coach-athlete relationship, and disordered eating behaviors by surveying 248 female varsity athletes and dancers from four universities. Mediational analysis revealed that the coach-athlete relationship was a partial mediating variable between perceived coach pressures and disordered eating behaviors. Subsequently, strong relationships between coaches and their athletes may reduce the negative impact of perceived weight-related coach pressure on the development or exacerbation of disordered eating behaviors in female collegiate athletes.

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Assessment of Athletes With Eating Disorders: Essentials for Best Practice

Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney, and Riley Nickols

and athletic aptitude. Health Risk All EDs pose risk of psychological, social, and life-threatening medical complications (see Figure  1 ) with serious compromise in overall quality of life ( Styer, Conviser, Washburn, & Aldridge, 2014 ). Eating disorders and subclinical disordered eating behaviors

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The Role of Social Physique Anxiety and Other Variables in Predicting Eating Behaviors in College Students

Lori M. Cox, Christopher D. Lantz, and Jerry L. Mayhew

Early identification of potentially harmful eating patterns is critical in the effective remediation of such behaviors. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the degree lo which various factors including gender, family history, and athletic status predict disordered eating behavior; social physique anxiety and percent body fat were added as potential predictor variables. The eating behaviors of student-athletes and nonathlete students were also compared. One hundred eighty undergraduate students (males = 49, females =131) provided demographic information and completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS). Stepwise multiple-regression analysis indicated that social physique anxiety, gender, and body fat (%Fat) combined to predict 34% of disordered eating behaviors: EAT = 0.921 SPA - 1.05 %Fat + 10.95 Gender (1 = M. 2 = F) - 17.82 (R 2 = .34, SE = 4.68). A one-way ANOVA comparing ihe eating behaviors of athletes and nonathletes revealed no significant difference between these groups.

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Cognitive Mapping: Its Use as an Assessment Tool for Disordered Eating

Kristin L. Wiginton and Deborah Rhea

The incidence of eating disorders among female athletes continues to increase, presenting intervention challenges to athletic trainers. Additionally, a number of female athletes have disordered eating behaviors that do not yet constitute an eating disorder diagnosis, but have similar characteristics to those athletes diagonised with eating disorders. However, each athlete exhibits individual mental representations of disordered eating and the impact of those representations on important aspects of her life. The athletic trainer has the potential to offer comprehensive preventive education when all aspects of the athlete’s own understanding of disordered eating are assessed. Cognitive mapping is an assessment technique that can be used in addition to other preventive practices and can be useful in determining an athlete’s current mental representations of disordered eating.

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Nutritional Aspects of Amenorrhea in the Female Athlete Triad

Joan E. Benson, Kathryn A. Engelbert-Fenton, and Patricia A. Eisenman

Female athletes experience a high incidence of menstrual abnormalities. This has critical health consequences because amenorrhea athletes are at greater risk of developing osteopenia and bone injury compared to normally menstruating athletes or nonathletic normally cycling females. Female performers and athletes are also at risk for developing disordered eating behaviors. There appears to be a connection between menstrual dysfunction, athletic training, and disordered eating, but how they relate is not fully understood. In this paper we explore how low calorie intakes, nutritional inadequacies, vegetarianism, low body fat stores, and specific training behaviors may contribute to the abnormal menstrual patterns seen in this population. Recommendations for the detection and prevention of eating and training problems and consequent menstrual abnormalities are included.

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Comparing Weight-Conscious Drinking Among Athletes and Nonathletes

Marina Galante, Rose Marie Ward, and Robert Weinberg

Weight-conscious drinking is the use of disordered eating behaviors in anticipation of or as compensation for calories consumed during alcohol use. The aim of the current study is to assess the relationship between weight-conscious drinking, athletic status, and sport type. Participants were 295 college students (82 male and 213 female; Mage = 20.10) from a midsized Midwestern university. Participants completed an online survey that included items assessing alcohol consumption, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI), the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and the Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol Consumption Scale (CEBRACS). In comparison with nonathletes, student-athletes had lower EAT-26 and CEBRACS scores; RAPI scores did not differ between the two groups. Lean-sport athletes differed concerning CEBRACS diet/exercise subscales in comparison with nonlean-sport athletes.