al., 2009 ) and lower academic achievement ( Carlson et al., 2008 ; Kwak et al., 2009 ) than regularly active children. Research has consistently documented age disparities in youth physical activity, with children’s participation in MVPA decreasing by 38 minutes per year from age 9 to age 15 ( Nader
Hannah G. Calvert, Matthew T. Mahar, Brian Flay and Lindsey Turner
interaction terms to test a priori hypothesized disparities. Given literature showing that males accrue more steps than females across the school day, 18 we hypothesized that males would accrue more steps than females during all PA opportunities (PE, recess, and CBPA). Similarly, given that PA levels are
Sara Santarossa, Paige Coyne, Sarah J. Woodruff and Craig G. Greenham
the types and tones of thoughts and opinions generated around the athletes may differ depending on the gender of the athlete, with commenters on male body-image athletes more likely to use profanity than on women body-image athletes. A gender disparity was also identified in terms of ESPN’s Instagram
Deborah A. Cohen, Bing Han, Sujeong Park, Stephanie Williamson and Kathryn P. Derose
, 2013 ) Along with disparities in access, there are also disparities in park use: Parks are used more by younger than by older groups and more by males than females ( Cohen et al., 2016 ; Evenson, Jones, Holliday, Cohen, & McKenzie, 2016 ). Another barrier to physical activity as people age is the
Andrea Richardson, Bing Han, Stephanie Williamson and Deborah Cohen
physical activity disparities. 10 – 13 Parks provide opportunities to experience nature and to engage in physical recreation. However, some studies have indicated that parks are less plentiful in low-income areas than in affluent neighborhoods. 14 , 15 In addition, although parks are underutilized, 16
Gopal K. Singh, Michael D. Kogan, Mohammad Siahpush and Peter C. van Dyck
This study examines state and regional disparities in vigorous physical activity levels among US children age 6 to 17 years.
The 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health was used to calculate vigorous physical activity (VPA) and no days of vigorous physical activity (NVPA) prevalence by state and geographic region. Logistic and least squares regression were used to analyze geographic disparities.
Vigorous physical activity levels varied substantially across geographic areas, with the East Southcentral region of the US having the highest NVPA prevalence (13.4%) and the Pacific region the lowest prevalence (9.1%). Children in Georgia and Tennessee had 2.2 to 2.3 times higher odds and children in DC, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Indiana, Kentucky, Kansas, New Jersey, South Carolina, and Washington (adjusted prevalence >13.4%) had 1.8 to 2.0 times higher odds of NVPA than children in California (adjusted prevalence = 8.4%). Adjustment for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, social capital, television viewing, sleep behavior, and parental physical activity doubled the magnitude of geographic disparities in vigorous physical activity levels. Area poverty, income inequality, and violent crime rates were independent predictors of VPA and NVPA.
Although individual and area-level socioeconomic factors are important predictors, substantial geographic disparities remain, with children in several Southern states having particularly high risks of NVPA.
Wendell C. Taylor, Myron F. Floyd, Melicia C. Whitt-Glover and Joseph Brooks
Despite the importance of physical activity (PA) for good health, not all populations have equal access to PA facilities and resources. This disparity is an environmental justice (EJ) issue because of the negative impact on the health of low-income and racial/ethnic minorities.
This paper reviews the first wave of the EJ movement, presents the second wave of the EJ movement, discusses the implications of adopting principles from the EJ movement to focus on research in parks and recreation services (PRS), and recommends future research directions.
Studies on EJ have documented the disproportionate burden of environmental challenges experienced by low-income and racial/ethnic minorities. With regard to PA, these communities face inadequate access to, quality of, financing for, and public involvement in recreation opportunities.
EJ is a useful framework to facilitate collaborative research between public health and PRS to study racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in PA.
Betteco J. de Boer, C. (Lieke) E. Peper, Arne Ridderikhoff and Peter J. Beek
In the current study, we examined whether coupling influences resulting from unintended afference-based phase entrainment are affected by movement amplitude as such or by the amplitude relation between the limbs. We assessed entrainment strength by studying how passive movements of the contralateral hand influenced unimanual coordination with a metronome. Results showed that amplitude as such did not affect entrainment strength, whereas the amplitude relation between the hands did. Larger amplitudes of the passive hand relative to the active hand resulted in stronger entrainment. This dependence on relative amplitude implies that entrainment strength is not only based on the intensity of afferent signals generated in the entraining limb but also on the susceptibility of the entrained limb to these signals.
Susan B. Sisson and Stephanie T. Broyles
The primary and secondary purposes were to examine social-ecological correlates of excessive TV viewing (>2hr/day) in American children 1) between race/ethnic groups and 2) between boys and girls.
Children (n = 48,505) aged 6 to 18 years from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health were included. Social-ecological correlates included individual-, family-, and community-level variables. Logistic regression analyses were used for race/ethnicity [Non-Hispanic White (NHW), Non-Hispanic Black (NHB), Hispanic, other] and sex groups (boys, girls), to determine associated correlates.
By race/ethnicity, 16.6%, 37.8%, and 24.5% of NHW, NHB, and Hispanic exceeded recommendations. For boys and girls, 23.7% and 18.2% viewed excessive TV. Having a TV in the bedroom and higher poverty level were associated with excessive TV in all groups. Differences by race/ethnicity were age, sex, TV in the bedroom, extracurricular activities, physical activity, adequate sleep, family structure, family meals, knowing child’s friends, parent/ child communication, and neighborhood characteristics. Differences by sex were family structure, parent/ child communication, family meals, and neighborhood elements.
Social-ecological correlates and associated prevalence of excessive TV viewing differed across subgroups. These specific correlates can be targeted in tailored interventions.
Lucia Andrea Leone and Dianne S. Ward
Obese women have lower levels of physical activity than nonobese women, but it is unclear what drives these differences.
Mixed methods were used to understand why obese women have lower physical activity levels. Findings from focus groups with obese white women age 50 and older (N = 19) were used to develop psychosocial items for an online survey of white women (N = 195). After examining the relationship between weight group (obese vs. nonobese) and exercise attitudes, associated items (P < .05) were tested for potential mediation of the relationship between weight and physical activity.
Obese women were less likely than nonobese women to report that they enjoy exercise (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2−0.8) and were more likely to agree their weight makes exercise difficult (OR = 10.6, 95% CI 4.2−27.1), and they only exercise when trying to lose weight (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.6−8.9). Enjoyment and exercise for weight loss were statistically significant mediators of the relationship between weight and physical activity.
Exercise interventions for obese women may be improved by focusing on exercise enjoyment and the benefits of exercise that are independent of weight loss.