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Ping Xiang, Susan Lowy and Ron McBride

The present study focused on preservice classroom teachers’ beliefs about elementary physical education and the impact of a field-based elementary physical education methods course on their beliefs. Participants (N = 97) completed questionnaires at the beginning and at the end of the course. Results indicated that the preservice classroom teachers held similar beliefs about the values and purposes of elementary physical education as were shared by physical education professionals. The methods course had a positive impact on the participants’ beliefs but no impact on their disposition toward teaching elementary physical education. Teaching physical education in an elementary school setting and observing physical education classes were the two most important components of the course that contributed to changes in the participants’ beliefs.

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Ben D. Kern, Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods and Tom Templin

efforts. For example, it is not clear how internal factors, such as teachers’ individual dispositions, influence their decisions about change. In addition, although much literature exists about how physical education teachers are socialized in the workplace ( Richards, Templin, & Graber, 2014 ), the

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Brendan Dwyer, Joris Drayer and Stephen L. Shapiro

purpose of the current study was to explore gambling-related differences, dispositionally, attitudinally, and behaviorally, between those fantasy participants who chose to play DFS and those who only play TFS. As a new service with enticing, yet potentially harmful outcomes, DFS participation is still

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Eric E. Hall and Steven J. Petruzzello

Physical activity has been consistently linked to better mental health—greater positive affect and life satisfaction, less negative affect, anxiety, and depression (Petruzzello et al., 1991; McAuley & Rudolph, 1995). Brain activation patterns have been linked to dispositional affect: greater relative left anterior hemisphere activation relates to positive affect, and greater relative right anterior activation relates to negative affect (Davidson, 1992). In this study, measures of resting EEG frontal asymmetry, dispositional affect, and physical activity were obtained from 41 older adults. Frontal asymmetry significantly predicted positive affect. In the high active group (n = 21), frontal asymmetry significantly predicted affective valence and satisfaction with life; in the low active group (n = 20), it significantly predicted negative affect. Physical activity was also significantly related to better dispositional affect. These findings suggest that the relationship between frontal brain activity and dispositional affect is influenced by physical activity in older adults.

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David González-Cutre, Álvaro Sicilia, Juan Antonio Moreno and Juan Miguel Fernández-Balboa

The purpose of this study was to analyze the mediating effects of social goals and perceived competence on students’ perceptions of motivational climates and dispositional flow in physical education. At the beginning of the physical education unit, 779 students, 12 to 16 years old, were asked to complete four questionnaires: Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (PMCSQ-2), which measured the perception of task- and ego-involving climates; the Social Goal Scale–Physical Education (SGS-PE); the sport competence factor of the Physical Self-Perception Profile; and the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2). The results of the structural equation model showed that the task-involving climate positively predicted students’ social goals (i.e., relationship and responsibility goals) as well as their perceived competence. In turn, social goals and perceived competence positively predicted their dispositional flow. Of the total effects of task-involving climate on dispositional flow, 50% of them were direct whereas the other 50% were indirect. The ego-involving climate positively predicted dispositional flow through perceived competence. The results are discussed with reference to the ability of the teacher to create a high degree of motivation for the students so as to help them achieve optimal psychological states and continue to participate in physical activity.

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Inez Rovegno and Dianna Bandhauer

This case study tells the story of an in-service elementary physical education teacher, who made a large-scale change from an activities approach to a movement approach based, initially, on “Every Child a Winner” (Rockett & Owens, 1977). Five psychological dispositions facilitated the development of the teacher’s knowledge: (a) the disposition to understand the approach accurately and deeply and to do the job right, (b) the disposition to accept that the approach was difficult to learn and to persist in seeking clarification, (c) the disposition to justify and develop a practice in keeping with a sound educational philosophy and theoretical foundations, (d) the disposition toward change and to learn and implement new ideas, and (e) the disposition to suspend judgment of new ideas. Dispositions can be important aspects of teacher thinking and can help to explain successful knowledge development and teacher change.

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Adam R. Nicholls, John L. Perry, Leigh Jones, Dave Morley and Fraser Carson

It is accepted among scholars that coping changes as people mature during adolescence, but little is known about the relationship between maturity and coping. The purpose of this paper was to assess a model, which included dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity. We predicted that cognitive social maturity would have a direct effect on coping effectiveness, and also an indirect impact via dispositional coping. Two hundred forty-five adolescent athletes completed measures of dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity, which has three dimensions: conscientiousness, peer influence on behavior, and rule following. Using structural equation modeling, we found support for our model, suggesting that coping is related to cognitive social maturity. This information can be used to influence the content of coping interventions for adolescents of different maturational levels.

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Weidong Li, Amelia M. Lee and Melinda A. Solmon

This study was designed to explore the relationships among individuals’ dispositional ability conceptions, intrinsic motivation, experience, perceived competence, persistence, and performance. Participants practiced a novel task, completed surveys before instruction and after practicing the task, and completed a skill test. The results indicated that participants with higher levels of entity ability conceptions were likely to exert less effort and be less intrinsically motivated during practice. Participants with more experience were likely to feel more competent before and after practice. Perceived competence, incremental ability conceptions, and performance were positive predictors of intrinsic motivation. The results suggest that providing students opportunities to experience a variety of activities and creating an environment in which students can feel competent, believe in the efficacy of effort, and experience success could foster intrinsic motivation to actively engage in activities.

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Susan A. Jackson and Robert C. Eklund

The Flow State Scale-2 (FSS-2) and Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2) are presented as two self-report instruments designed to assess flow experiences in physical activity. Item modifications were made to the original versions of these scales in order to improve the measurement of some of the flow dimensions. Confirmatory factor analyses of an item identification and a cross-validation sample demonstrated a good fit of the new scales. There was support for both a 9-first-order factor model and a higher order model with a global flow factor. The item identification sample yielded mean item loadings on the first-order factor of .78 for the FSS-2 and .77 for the DFS-2. Reliability estimates ranged from .80 to .90 for the FSS-2, and .81 to .90 for the DFS-2. In the cross-validation sample, mean item loadings on the first-order factor were .80 for the FSS-2, and .73 for the DFS-2. Reliability estimates ranged between .80 to .92 for the FSS-2 and .78 to .86 for the DFS-2. The scales are presented as ways of assessing flow experienced within a particular event (FSS-2) or the frequency of flow experiences in chosen physical activity in general (DFS-2).

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Vaithehy Shanmugam, Sophia Jowett and Caroline Meyer

In the current study, we had two aims. First, we investigated the associations between eating psychopathology, situational interpersonal difficulties, and dispositional interpersonal difficulties among athletes and nonathletes. Second, we examined the mediating role of self-critical perfectionism, self-esteem, and depression in these associations. A total of 152 athletes and 147 nonathletes completed self-report instruments pertaining to relationship quality with significant others, as well as social anxiety, loneliness, self-critical perfectionism, self-esteem, depression, and eating psychopathology. Social anxiety and loneliness were found to be the only significant independent predictors of eating psychopathology among both athletes and nonathletes. However, such associations were indirectly mediated through depression for athletes and through self-critical perfectionism, self-esteem, and depression for nonathletes. The findings of this study suggest that the psychosocial mechanisms involved in the eating psychopathology of athletes are relatively similar to that of nonathletes. Thus, it can be tentatively proposed that treatments and interventions that target reducing interpersonal conflicts currently available for the general population should also be offered to athletes.