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Hayley L. deBeaudrap, John G.H. Dunn, and Nicholas L. Holt

The purpose of this study was to explore female varsity athletes’ perceptions of how they developed high levels of dispositional optimism in sport. Eighty-three female varsity athletes completed a domain-specific version of the Life Orientation Test (LOT: Scheier & Carver, 1985). Nine participants (M age = 19.33 years, SD = 1.5) who had high dispositional optimism in sport then completed individual semistructured interviews. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis methodology was used. Results showed that during childhood, participants perceived that their parents were supportive, provided feedback, and allowed them to have choice over the sports they played. During adolescence, coaches began to play an important role and participants were also able to learn about being optimistic through the positive and negative experiences they encountered. During early adulthood, participants developed personal narratives about the ways in which they approached sport with optimism.

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Courtney B. Albinson and Trent A. Petrie


To examine the relationships among preinjury and postinjury stress, coping, personality, mood state, and rehabilitation adherence.


Participants completed measures of preinjury life-event stress, social-support satisfaction, dispositional optimism, and mood state. Injured athletes completed postinjury measures of mood state, coping methods, and cognitive appraisals of stress and coping ability 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28 days postinjury. Their athletic trainer completed a measure of rehabilitation adherence on those days.


84 college football players including 19 injured athletes.


Negative-life-event stress predicted postinjury mood disturbance, which was positively related with appraisals. Appraisals were related to greater avoidance coping at day 7, greater active behavioral coping at days 14 and 28, and less active cognitive coping at day 28. Active behavioral coping was associated with greater mood disturbance, and active cognitive coping and avoidance coping were inversely related.


Results support cognitive-appraisal models of sport injury and dynamic views of coping with injury.

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J. Robert Grove and N. Paul Heard

Sport performers (N = 213) completed either a questionnaire measure of dispositional optimism or a questionnaire measure of trait sport confidence and then provided information about how they cope with performance slumps. The use of task-focused, emotion-focused, and avoidance-oriented coping strategies was assessed with a slump-referenced version of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS; Endler & Parker, 1990a). Results indicated that both personality measures were positively related to the use of problem-focused strategies and negatively related to the use of emotion-focused strategies. These findings are discussed in relation to previous research on confidence in sport and a model of sport-related coping proposed by Hardy, Jones, and Gould (1996). Practical implications for the effective management of performance slumps are also addressed.

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Rachel A. Millstein, Jeff C. Huffman, Anne N. Thorndike, Melanie Freedman, Carlyn Scheu, Sonia Kim, Hermioni L. Amonoo, Margot Barclay, and Elyse R. Park

. The responses were not seen by the interviewer prior to the interviews. We obtained self-report data to augment the interview content. The self-report questionnaires measured the following psychological constructs: dispositional optimism using the 6-item Life Orientation Test-Revised, 31 in which

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Ansley E. Swann, Rachel R. Kleis, and Johanna M. Hoch

K , Delahanty DL . Trauma history as a resilience factor for patients recovering from total knee replacement surgery . Psychol Health . 2015 ; 30 ( 9 ): 1005 – 1016 . doi:10.1080/08870446.2014.1001391 25533570 10.1080/08870446.2014.1001391 14. Krackow A . Hardiness and dispositional

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Benjamin J.I. Schellenberg, Jérémie Verner-Filion, Patrick Gaudreau, and Sophia Mbabaali

:// 10.1016/j.paid.2011.08.022 Gaudreau , P. , & Blondin , J.-P. ( 2004 ). Differential associations of dispositional optimism and pessimism with coping, goal attainment, and emotional adjustment during sport competition . International Journal of Stress Management, 11

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Amber D. Mosewich, Catherine M. Sabiston, Kent C. Kowalski, Patrick Gaudreau, and Peter R.E. Crocker

-0292(01)00017-6 Gaudreau , P. , & Blondin , J.-P. ( 2004 ). The differential associations of dispositional optimism and pessimism with coping, goal attainment, and emotional adjustment during a sport competition . International Journal of Stress Management, 11 , 245 – 269 . doi:10.1037/1072-5245.11.3.245 10

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Tom Williams, Lynne Evans, Angus Robertson, Lew Hardy, Stuart Roy, and Daniel Lewis

. 10.1016/j.apmr.2009.05.024 Chang , E.C. ( 1998 ). Dispositional optimism and primary and secondary appraisal of a stressor: Controlling for confounding influences and relations to coping and psychological and physical adjustment . Journal of Personality and