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Marja H. Westhoff and Marijke Hopman-Rock

The article describes the dissemination and implementation of the Aging Well and Healthily (AWH) program in the Netherlands. In the period 1997–1999 this process was monitored by means of telephone interviews with 263 participants, 28 peer educators, and 13 organizers. The program participants were mainly physically active and relatively healthy people in their mid 70s. The peer educators were in their late 50s. The overall satisfaction with the content and delivery of the AWH program was good; 13% of the participants enrolled in related local sports activities. In total, the AWH program was run 57 times, which did not meet the target of 50 times a year. Different factors could have negatively influenced dissemination. In the first place, the organization of the program was perceived to be complex and not compatible with the values of the organizations that were to implement the program. Also, 3 national implementation partners had organizational problems of their own. The results were used to design a new social marketing strategy, which appears to be successful.

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Guy Faulkner, Sara-Jane Finlay and Stephannie C. Roy

Background:

News media may play a critical role in disseminating research about physical activity and health. This study examined how much physical activity research gets reported in the media and its prominence and credibility.

Methods:

A content analysis was conducted of the reporting of physical activity research in Canadian national and local newspapers from November 2004 to April 2005.

Results:

Physical activity research was given some prominence and treated as news through the use of several devices to infer credibility. However, newspapers appeared to invest little in the production of physical activity research as news and information about research methodology was infrequent.

Conclusions:

While stories reporting physical activity research were given some prominence and credibility, the lack of significant investment and the limited reporting on research methodology suggests that important aspects of research related to physical activity may not be well represented in newspaper coverage.

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Artur Direito, Joseph J. Murphy, Matthew Mclaughlin, Jacqueline Mair, Kelly Mackenzie, Masamitsu Kamada, Rachel Sutherland, Shannon Montgomery, Trevor Shilton and on behalf of the ISPAH Early Career Network

possible solutions for decision makers to consider); (2) dissemination—of information, materials, and GAPPA resources 15 ; (3) implementation—by using strategies to adopt the evidence-based actions proposed in the GAPPA and change current practices; and (4) contributing to advocacy for robust and funded

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Catrine Tudor-Locke, Nicola Lauzon, Anita M. Myers, Rhonda C. Bell, Catherine B. Chan, Linda McCargar, Mark Speechley and N. Wilson Rodger

Background:

To compare the effectiveness of a theory-based lifestyle physical activity (PA) program delivered to individuals with type 2 diabetes in diabetes education centers by professionals and peers.

Methods:

Changes over 16 weeks in PA (steps/day) and related variables (weight, waist girth, resting heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures) were compared (RMANOVA) for two groups: 157 participants led by 13 different professionals versus 63 participants led by 5 peer leaders.

Results:

Overall, the 81 male and 139 female participants (age = 55.7 ± 7.3 years, BMI = 35.2 ± 6.6) showed an incremental change of 4,059 ± 3,563 steps/day, which translates into an extra 37 minutes of daily walking (P < .001). Statistically significant improvements were also seen in weight, waist girth, and blood pressure (all P < .001) and resting heart rate (P < .05). There were no significant differences in outcomes between professional and peer-led groups.

Conclusions:

A theory-based behavior modification program featuring simple feedback and monitoring tools, and with a proven element of flexibility in delivery, can be effective under real-world conditions while addressing inevitable concerns about resource allocation. Program delivery by peer leaders, in particular, could address a potential obstacle to dissemination by helping to alleviate existing high caseload demands on diabetes educators.

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Dan Gould

This review discusses the need for and importance of knowledge integration and dissemination in coaching science. It is argued that researchers are not paying enough attention to knowledge integration and dissemination. Scientists can better conduct coaching research of high impact by carrying out practitioner needs assessments, relating findings of a specific study to a larger take home message so that the value of science is better seen when debriefing participants, educating future coaching science researchers as to how to write for practical audiences, considering practitioner characteristics and context constraints when designing studies, considering practical outlets for research when designing studies, and realizing that dissemination is not easy—it takes considerable time and repeated efforts to occur. Finally, dissemination and translational science models are offered as tools to assist those who are interested in conducting and disseminating research aimed at making a practical difference in sport and coaching settings.

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Thomas L. McKenzie, James F. Sallis, Paul Rosengard and Kymm Ballard

SPARK [Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids], in its current form, is a brand that represents a collection of exemplary, research-based, physical education and physical activity programs that emphasize a highly active curriculum, on-site staff development, and follow-up support. Given its complexity (e.g., multiple school levels, inclusion of both physical education and self-management curricula), SPARK features both diverse instructional and diverse curricular models. SPARK programs were initially funded by the NIH as two separate elementary and middle school intervention studies, and the curriculum and instructional models used in them embody the HOPE (Health Optimizing Physical Education) model. This paper reviews background information and studies from both the initial grants (1989–2000) and the dissemination (1994-present) phases of SPARK, identifies program evolution, and describes dissemination efforts and outcomes. Procedures used in SPARK may serve as models for others interested in researching and disseminating evidence-based physical education and physical activity programs.

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Alisa G. Anderson, Zöe Knowles and David Gilbourne

Current training models appear ill equipped to support sport psychology trainees in learning the requisite humanistic skills to provide athlete-centered services (Petitpas, Giges, & Danish, 1999). The aim of this paper is to build a case for the value of reflective practice as an approach to professional training and development that can assist practitioners in effectively managing themselves in practice. In developing the case for reflective practice, we discuss the nature of professional knowledge (Schön, 1987), define reflection, and present popular models of the reflective process from “educare” professions. In addition, we consider the application of reflective practice within sport psychology practice and highlight how reflective practice can benefit the professional and personal development of practitioners. Finally, discussion on appropriate outlets for the dissemination of reflective narratives is undertaken.

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Elaine S. Belansky, Nick Cutforth, Ben Kern and Sharon Scarbro

Background:

To address childhood obesity, strategies are needed to maximize physical activity during the school day. The San Luis Valley Physical Education Academy was a public health intervention designed to increase the quality of physical education and quantity of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during physical education class.

Methods:

Elementary school physical education teachers from 17 schools participated in the intervention. They received SPARK curriculum and equipment, workshops, and site coordinator support for 2 years. A pre/post/post within physical education teacher design was used to measure intervention effectiveness. System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) and a physical education teacher survey were collected 3 times.

Results:

MVPA increased from 51.1% to 67.3% over the 2-year intervention resulting in approximately 14.6 additional hours of physical activity over a school year and 4662 kcal or 1.33 lbs. of weight gain prevention. More time was spent on skill drills and less time on classroom management and free play.

Conclusions:

The San Luis Valley Physical Education Academy succeeded in increasing rural, low-income students’ physical activity. The multicomponent intervention contributed to the program’s success. However, cost-effective approaches are needed to disseminate and implement evidencebased practices aimed at increasing students’ physical activity during the school day.

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Edited by Mark B. Andersen

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Katherine A. Stamatakis, Timothy D. McBride and Ross C. Brownson

Background:

While effective interventions to promote physical activity have been identified, efforts to translate these interventions into policy have lagged behind. To improve the translation of evidence into policy, researchers and public health practitioners need to consider new ways for communicating health promoting messages to state and local policymakers.

Methods:

In this article, we describe issues related to the translation of evidence supporting physical activity promotion, and offer some communication approaches and tools that are likely to be beneficial in translating research to policy.

Results:

We discuss the use of narrative (ie, stories) and describe its potential role in improving communication of research in policy-making settings. In addition, we provide an outline for the development and design of policy briefs on physical activity, and for how to target these briefs effectively to policy-oriented audiences.

Conclusions:

Improvements in researchers' and practitioners' abilities to translate the evidence they generate into high-quality materials for policy makers can greatly enhance efforts to enact policies that promote physical activity.